Browsing Doctoral Degrees (Ancient Studies) by browse.metadata.advisor "Cornelius, I."
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- ItemBa'al and Seth : an investigation into the relationship of two gods, with reference to their iconography (ca. 1500 – 1000 BCE)(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2013-12) Cox, Michael James; Cornelius, I.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Ancient Studies.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Although the traditional viewpoint of the Ancient Egyptian civilisation is one of isolation and self containment, in fact Egypt and Syro-Palestine had a long history of contact and interaction before the Late Bronze Age, albeit somewhat tenuous and ad hoc. The commencement of the New Kingdom in Egypt heralded a more vigorous period of exchange. This was largely due to the Egyptian policy of increased commercial activity and military campaigns in Syro-Palestine as well as the rising strength of the Asiatic peoples. At the personal level there was always a trend of Asiatics moving into Egypt in search of a better life, which opened the door for the Hyksos rule at the end of the Middle Bronze Age. This foreign rule was an affront on the dignity of the Egyptians. Thus, following numerous military campaigns much of Syro-Palestine was incorporated into the wider Egyptian political entity. In counterpoint to the situation in Egypt, Syro-Palestine was very far from isolated, situated in the open cultural landscape of Syria and Mesopotamia it was the very hub of the Ancient Near East. Inevitably there was considerable interaction, and throughout history, as even today, Syro-Palestine is a crossroads and melting pot of different peoples. At the forefront of any exchange were religious ideas, religious traditions were introduced and foreign gods were spread far and wide. The international nature of the gods seems to have been a characteristic of the Ancient Near East. In this scenario were the Egyptian god Seth and his counterpart the Syro-Palestinian god Baaal, each with a complex story, wherein the iconographical and textual evidence of the gods show much commonality. The association of Seth with Baaal in Egypt is clear, the name of Baaal being written with the Seth-animal determinative, whereas Syro-Palestine has the Mami stele from Ugarit. Major events shook the Ancient Near East ca. 1500-1000 BCE, Egypt reached its apogee and ruled the East; providing the most likely answer regarding the presence and worship of Seth in Syro-Palestine. Certainly Seth was present and worshipped, naturally the massive numbers of Egyptian military and diplomatic personnel required facilities for this practice. Since the earlier Hyksos rulers accepted and worshipped Seth this predicates on a continuum into the period in question. To summarize: Seth equals Baaal and Baaal equals Seth.
- ItemBeer as a signifier of social status in ancient Egypt with special emphasis on the New Kingdom period (ca. 1550-1069 BC) : the place of beer in Egyptian society compared to wine(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2015-03) Klop, Damian; Cornelius, I.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Ancient Studies.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Some academics are of the generalist opinion that ancient Egyptian beer was only consumed by the lower classes because of its low social status. This is based on the generalization that individuals only consume alcoholic beverages matching the status of their social class. Therefore the lower classes consumed beer while the upper classes consumed an alcoholic beverage of higher status, i.e. wine. However, other academics are of the universalist opinion that Egyptian beer was universally consumed by all Egyptian social classes irrespective of the status of beer. This study aims to test the validity of these opposing academic opinions and also strives to understand how statements of status in Egyptian society were devised, and what they were conveying. This was achieved by determining the status of Egyptian beer and wine and then comparing them to the respective status of beer and wine drinkers in the New Kingdom period (c. 1550-1069) according to the factors of production, consumption, health, economic exchange & distribution, and religion. Use is made of an anthropological approach which allows the researcher to limit social bias and understand ancient Egyptian society on its own terms. Results of this study indicate that Egyptian beer had a much lower status than Egyptian wine and all social classes consumed beer while only the upper classes consumed wine. The generalist opinion, therefore, is falsified and the universalist opinion validated. The results also indicate that the upper classes justified their beer consumption by producing, consuming and exchanging an elite beer of higher status in a manner reminiscent of wine so that it compared more favourably with the status of their social classes. This study, therefore, not only settles an old academic dispute but also provides new insight into Egyptian beer.
- ItemThe form, function and symbolism of standards in ancient Mesopotamia during the Third and Fourth Millennia BCE : an iconographical Study(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2016-03) Van Dijk, Renate Marian; Cornelius, I.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Ancient Studies.ENGLISH SUMMARY: A standard can be defined as a long shaft with a sign or emblem attached to the top which may be held or which may stand on the ground. Standards are represented in Mesopotamian art from the emergence of the first city-states in the fourth millennium BCE until the first millennium BCE. This study examines how standards are depicted in the iconographic record of the third and fourth millennia BCE by examining their form, function and symbolism. Perhaps the most well-known type of standard is the battle standard, but there were also other types of standards — divine standards, royal standards, standards in ritual context, standards in judicial procedures, architectural, ritual, and city standards. The iconographic sources include glyptic art, or cylinder seals, as well as representations on vessels, inlays, plaques, stelae or stelae fragments, and rare examples of extant standards. A catalogue of all known iconographic representations of standards is provided. These examples are presented and compared, and commonalities and differences are identified and examined. The study is laid out in seven chapters. Chapter 1 provides the methodological framework for the study. Chapter 2 follows as a short background to the period under discussion, the third and fourth millennia BCE, providing a general context for the discussion. The main discussion of standards begins from Chapter 3. The standards of the four periods under consideration — namely, the Uruk, Early Dynastic, Akkadian and Neo-Sumerian periods — are discussed in Chapter 3, Chapter 4, Chapter 5 and Chapter 6 respectively. Each standard represented in each period is discussed in turn and some preliminary summaries and conclusions are presented. In Chapter 7 the findings from Chapters 3-6 are presented, analysed and interpreted. This entails first a discussion on the different standards themselves, then an evaluation of the different functions or the different contexts within which these standards are depicted, and thereafter a brief summary of each of the four periods under discussion is provided.
- ItemIconographic motifs from Palestine/Israel and Daniel 7:2-14(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 1998-12) Eggler, Jurg; Cornelius, I.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Ancient Studies.This is an iconographic study of the motifs of the sea, lion, wings, horns and the enthroned in the iconography of Palestine/Israel with reference to the vision of Dan 7:2-14
- ItemIconography as biography : a study of the Middle Kingdom Egyptian tombs at Beni Hasan, el-Bersha and Meir (c.2040-1840 B.C.)(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 1995-12) Baines, Alice Victoria; Cornelius, I.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Ancient Studies.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The intention of this dissertation is to substantiate the hypothesis that biography in iconographic form occured in certain Middle Kingdom tombs of provinsial governors of the 14th, 15h and 16th Upper Egyptian nomes. Assumed initially to have been an individual idiosyncrasy of particular tomb owners, it is now proposed that it was in fact the manifestation of a general trend which had been developing over a given perdiod. It is also proposed that while this trend can be traced from its gradual development in the latter part of the Old Kingdom in a number of tombs, it can be seen exemplified to its best advantage in its developing and developed form in certain tombs at Beni Hasan. In addition to identifying certain iconography as biographical. the intention is to justify this conclusion by examining the religious, social and historical conditions which brought this about and which eventually led to its discontinuation. In order to do this the following aspects are discussed:- 1. The nature of iconography, the nature and rules of narrative, which must be present in biographical matter, and the ability of iconography to comply with such rules. 2. The geographical and historical background to the existence of the tombs under discussion. 3. The development of Egyptian tomb art as bearing on the decorativ content of certain tombs and the canonical religious symbolism inherent in the murals both iconographic and hieroglyphic, in order to differentiate between this symbolism and the iconographic biography which it introduced. 4. The religious concepts applicable to funerary observances and tomb preperation at that time are investigated to endeavour to ascertain the extent of conformity with these concepts relative to the construction of the tombs under review. 5. The social conditions extant at the period in which the proposed biographical trend developed are examined with a view to their possible influence relative to that trend. 6. In the main the views and conclusions expressed in this dissertation have been reached by adhering to hermeneutic principles of interpretaion and comprhension.
- ItemThe reception of Genesis 1-3 in Nguni culture(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2011-12) Gwala, Mzonzima; Cornelius, I.; Thipa, H.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Ancient Studies.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This dissertation looks at the reception of Gen. 1-3, one of the most controversial parts in the Hebrew Bible. How was it interpreted by the Nguni speaking communities (e.g. Xhosa, Zulu, siSwazi and siNdebele) taking into consideration their background, culture and religious belief system? The reception approach is followed in the research because of its emphasis on the role of the reader in understanding texts. Sources that are utilized are Nguni Bible translations, selected preached sermons (which the researcher attended himself), Nguni stories and folk tales and reviews undertaken among selected Nguni groups. A close-reading of the texts under discussion is undertaken in order to determine the basic content and issues of interpretation involved. The central concepts of cosmogony as contained in Gen. 1-2 are studied, as well as the story of the Garden of Eden and the concept of the “fall” in Gen. 3. The map of the Nguni language group is described and the culture and belief system of the Nguni speaking communities. Central concepts to this belief system are the worship of ancestors, marriage, circumcision, and among the Swazis the incwala (annual national feast) Legends and folk tales were used as sources for the Nguni belief system. It was determined that the Nguni speaking people worshipped one God in their traditional way, but always through their ancestors as a sign of respect. The role of the missionaries is analyzed by describing the history of the various missionary societies and their influence on the Nguni peoples. A very short discussion is devoted to preached sermons by Nguni pastors in the Seventh-day Adventist Church.Bible translations have always played a very important role among Nguni speakers (both Christians and non-believers). The need for translations using understandable contemporary terms is emphasized. This is the challenge to the Bible societies and Bible translators. Qualitative reviews were undertaken under selected Nguni speaking groups (Xhosa, Zulu, siSwati and siNdebele). Some of the results obtained from these reviews (full transcripts are included) are: (1) that there is a common understanding of the origin of the universe between the Hebrew Bible and the Nguni religious culture. (2) Serpent (Gen. 3): among the Zulus this concept is understood in terms of sexuality, but it can also be linked with the ancestors. (3) Both communities (Hebrew Bible and the Nguni) were tainted with the concept and ideology of patriarchalism. The crucial question in the research was: “what happens when a cosmogonic myth is transferred from one community to another?” In the case of Gen. 1-3 an ancient Hebrew text was transmitted to African cultures via missionaries and Bible translations. Nguni people react differently. Whereas some accept Gen. 1-3 (cosmogonies and the “fall”) as a detailed explanation of how creation and the “fall” came about, others reject it.
- ItemA stylistic comparison of selected visual representations on Egyptian funerary papyri of the 21st Dynasty and wooden funerary stelae of the 22nd Dynasty (c. 1069 -715 B. C. E.)(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2004-12) Swart, Lisa; Cornelius, I.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Ancient Studies.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This dissertation examines illustrated funerary papyri and wooden funerary stelae for information they can provide about the organization of artists in the 21st and 22nd Dynasty. It is an inquiry into the relationship between visual representation on the funerary papyri of the 21st Dynasty and wooden stelae of the 22nd Dynasty. An attempt is made to determine whether it is possible to identify the work of individual artists and workshops involved in producing the illustrated funerary papyri and wooden stelae, and in what way they may be related. This study covers a representative sample of workshops or individuals from around the beginning of the 21st Dynasty to the early 22nd Dynasty. Methodology involved undertaking the research on a descriptive and interpretative/comparative level. Panofsky's (1972: passim) model for describing pictorial works was used to interpret the iconography. The comparisons between the papyri and stelae were based upon a combination of the models developed by Freed (1996: passim) and Niwinski (1989a: passim). These models functioned as a control or corrective in order to formulate an interpretation. It was possible to definitively place 208 manuscripts out of 214 papyri into seven individual workshops. This was based upon their stylistic similarities and corresponding content. Papyri Workshop 1 is comprised of fifty-six manuscripts, and constitutes the largest group. The highest quality manuscripts were produced in this workshop, which was patronized by the high priests of Amun and their families. Papyri Workshop 2 is the smallest group consisting of only seven manuscripts. These two workshops contain the earliest manuscripts, which were generally executed in the Ramesside tradition. Papyri Workshop 3 contains the second largest grouping with fifty-two, and Papyri Workshop 4 consists of eleven. The majority of the members of this workshop belong to a homogenous, almost analogous group, in terms of content and composition. In the twenty-five manuscripts that belong to Papyri Workshop 5, it can be observed that the artists have taken complete liberties with the mass of iconography at their disposal. They have adapted and transformed the existing symbols into new compositions, so that no two manuscripts are alike. Papyri Workshop 6 is comprised of thirty manuscripts, and Papyri Workshop 7 has twenty. As opposed to Workshop 5, these two workshops display an economy of style and execution. They are also generally outlined in black. Furthermore, several subgroups are evident in the workshops, especially those that span many decades, such as Papyri Workshop 1 and 3.From a comprehensive examination of 103 stelae, it was possible to group 100 stelae into nine workshops. It is important to note that Stelae Workshop 1 is, in fact, linked to Papyri Workshop 1, to which thirteen stelae can be attributed. The stelae contain the same attributes and style of execution as the papyri. Stelae Workshop 2 consists of fifteen stelae, these are skilfully executed, and appear to be custom-made for the deceased. Workshop 3 comprises of fourteen stelae. Stelae Workshop 4 contains five, and Workshop 5 has nine. In contrast to Stelae Workshop 1, the principal representations within the stelae from Stelae Workshops 2 to 5 are generally standardized in form and format. Stelae Workshop 6 has six, while 7 and 8 are the two largest workshops with sixteen members each. These three workshops represent a general degradation of proficiency, culminating in a provincial folk-art quality of Stelae Workshop 7 and 8. Stelae Workshop 8 represents the final transition in style and format to the stelae of the Late Period. Stelae Workshop 9 is comprised of five stelae. The style of execution corresponds to the first phase of the Late Period stelae style. It is possible to observe the hand/s of individual artists or a master and student in the study selection, even within one workshop.