Browsing Department of Biochemistry by browse.metadata.advisor "Cook, N. C."
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- ItemA biochemical study of budbreak and plant growth regulators in table grapes(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2002-03) Lombard, Petrus Johannes; Bellstedt, D. U.; Cook, N. C.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Science. Dept. of Biochemistry.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The cultivation of table grapes in the warmer areas of South Africa, indeed worldwide, is complicated by rest breaking problems in spring due to delayed budbreak. In order to overcome these problems rest breaking agents, mainly hydrogen cyanamide, are applied. However, instead of alleviating the problem, additional problems such as uneven budbreak and reduced production are often induced. This study was initiated to further understand the physiological processes occurring during budbreak and how the application of hydrogen cyanamide influences these processes. The following aspects were investigated in this study: a. The effect of hydrogen cyanamide on tissue cytokinin (specifically zeatin riboside) levels of Sultanina table grape vines after application at different times before natural budbreak was studied over two seasons. In 1997, hydrogen cyanamide was applied at three weeks before induced budbreak and in 1998 at six weeks before induced budbreak. One year-old canes were sampled weekly after hydrogen cyanamide application, divided into distal and proximal sections, then further divided into buds, bark and wood tissues and the zeatin riboside (ZR) levels determined. A relatively high amount of chilling coupled to late hydrogen cyanamide application in 1997 led to a large effect on ZR release, but did not lead to significant shifting of the budbreak pattern. Zeatin riboside peaks were observed in buds, internode wood and bark of treated vines compared to control vines. The peaks were higher in distal portions compared to proximal portions in all tissues. The relatively lower chilling and earlier application of hydrogen cyanamide in 1998 had a larger effect on the budbreak pattern while the bud ZR peak was shifted earlier. The distal portion bud ZR . peak was again higher than the proximal portion bud ZR peak. In 1997, as sampling was not initiated early enough, bud ZR peaks were only observed after budbreak, while in 1998 bud ZR peaks were observed before and after budbreak. The effect of these ZR increases on the development of inflorescence primordia, subsequent bunch development and ultimately production, are discussed. b. Free xylem sap was sampled at cane and spur pruned lengths from unpruned canes of Sultanina from budswell until after budbreak in 1999 and from three table grape cultivars, i.e Sultanina, Alphonse Lavalleé and Sunred Seedless, in 2001 and ZR levels determined. The ZR levels in the buds of these three table grape cultivars, pruned to different cane lengths were also determined. One year old canes of these cultivars, were each pruned to long canes (14 buds) and short spurs (2 buds). The ZR content in buds of these canes at distal and proximal positions were determined weekly from budswell until after budbreak in 1999. Xylary ZR peaks occurred before 50% budbreak. Spur xylary ZR levels of all three cultivars followed a similar pattern, although at lower ZR levels than that of the canes. This is similar to previous studies on xylary ZR levels of apple shoots. The high levels of free ZR found in xylem sap at the distal portions of canes support the hypothesis of a cumulative ZR build-up effect as cane length increases. Spur pruning resulted in earlier budbreak and a higher final budbreak than cane pruning. The proximal portions of shoots, whether spur pruned or the proximal portions of canes, showed elevated ZR levels in all cultivars. This difference in ZR levels in bud tissue of different portions of the cane would suggest a difference in ZR consumption or turnover. The results of this study have important management implications for the cultivation of vines in warmer areas in which hydrogen cyanamide is used to alleviate budbreak problems.