A systematic review of the effects of single- event multilevel surgery on gait parameters in children with spastic cerebral palsy
CITATION: Lamberts, R. P., et al. 2016. A systematic review of the effects of single- event multilevel surgery on gait parameters in children with spastic cerebral palsy. PLoS ONE, 11(10):1-22, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0164686.
The original publication is available at http://journals.plos.org/plosone
Background: Three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA) is commonly used to assess the effect of orthopedic single-event multilevel surgery (SEMLS) in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review is to provide an overview of different orthopedic SEMLS interventions and their effects on 3DGA parameters in children with spastic CP. Methods: A comprehensive literature search within six databases revealed 648 records, from which 89 articles were selected for the full-text review and 24 articles (50 studies) included for systematic review. The Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine Scale and the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS) were used to appraise and determine the quality of the studies. Results: Except for one level II study, all studies were graded as level III according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine Scale. The MINORS score for comparative studies (n = 6) was on average 15.7/24, while non-comparative studies (n = 18) scored on average 9.8/16. Nineteen kinematic and temporal-distance gait parameters were selected, and a majority of studies reported improvements after SEMLS interventions. The largest improvements were seen in knee range of motion, knee flexion at initial contact and minimal knee flexion in stance phase, ankle dorsiflexion at initial contact, maximum dorsiflexion in stance and in swing phase, hip rotation and foot progression angles. However, changes in 3DGA parameters varied based on the focus of the SEMLS intervention. Discussion: The current article provides a novel overview of a variety of SEMLS interventions within different SEMLS focus areas and the post-operative changes in 3DGA parameters. This overview will assist clinicians and researchers as a potential theoretical framework to further improve SEMLS techniques within different SEMLS focus groups. In addition, it can also be used as a tool to enhance communication with parents, although the results of the studies can’t be generalised and a holistic approach is needed when considering SEMLS in a child with spastic CP.