The use of Hermetia illucens and Chrysomya chloropyga larvae and pre-pupae meal in ruminant nutrition

Haasbroek, Pierre (2016-03)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2016.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Protein resources in ruminant diets such as fish meal are often limited in supply and therefore have become more expensive. Insects such as larvae of different fly species are now more frequently studied and considered as an affordable protein source which could be used as an alternative animal sourced protein in different animal species diets. The objective of this study was to determine the nutrient value and obtain the rumen degradable potential of different fly larvae and pre-pupae treatments. The species used in this trial were the Hermetia illucens, known as the black soldier fly (BSF), and the Chrysomya chloropyga, better known as the copper-bottom blowfly (CC). The pre-pupae of BSF have a blackish exoskeleton made up of chitin and were therefore named as BSF B whereas the larvae were white and therefore named as BSF W. Furthermore, BSF B and BSF W were included as full fat (ff) treatments and defatted (df) treatments. Thus, there were four treatments for the BSF species, but only one full fat treatment for the CC. The five treatments were as follow: 1. BSF B ff – black soldier fly pre-pupae, full fat. 2. BSF W ff – black soldier fly larvae, full fat. 3. CC ff – Chrysomya chloropyga, full fat. 4. BSF B df – black soldier fly pre-pupae, defatted. 5. BSF W df – black soldier fly larvae, defatted. The different meal treatments were analyzed in the Department of Animal Sciences (Stellenbosch University). Analyses showed that larvae and pre-pupae meal are a good potential source of protein, amino acids and calcium. Two trials were done to determine the effective degradability (Deff) of the different larvae and pre-pupae meals. The trials were done over a 48 hour incubation period with bag removals at 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 48 hours. In the first trial the effective degradability and rumen undegradable protein (RUP) fractions were determined in an in vitro digestibility trial. The CC ff had the highest Deff (lowest RUP) value of all treatments. The two defatted treatments (BSF B df and BSF W df) had higher Deff values than the full fat treatments of the same species. It was concluded that the fat content of the larvae and pre-pupae meals were negatively correlated with degradability. The second trial was a repetition of the first trial, except that the protein degradability was determined in an in sacco digestibility trial. The degradability values in the in sacco trial were higher than those obtained in the in vitro trial for all five treatments. As was observed in the in vitro trial, CC ff had the highest Deff value. The defatted treatments once again showed higher Deff values than the full fat treatments of the same species. A final conclusion was made that the fat content of the fly larvae and pre-pupae meal has a significant effect on the degradability of the meal. It was suggested that further studies have to be conducted in an attempt to defat larvae and pre-pupae meal more effectively and also to put these meals through different processing methods to attempt to increase the RUP value of the meal. Once the above mentioned objectives is met, larvae and pre-pupae meal can be considered in trials to investigate the meal as an alternative protein source and replacement for fish meal in production animal diets.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Proteïenbronne wat gebruik word in herkouerdiëte, soos vismeel, is dikwels beperk tot beskikbaarheid wat dan bydrae tot die verhoogde kostes van hierdie produk. Al hoe meer navorsing word gedoen op insekte, soos die larwes van verskillende vliegspesies, in die soeke na alternatiewe proteïenbronne. Vlieglarwes word oorweeg as ʼn bekostigbare en alternatiewe bron van proteïen vir die gebruik in diëte van verskillende dierespesies. Die doel van hierdie studie was om vas te stel wat die nutriëntwaarde en rumendegradeerbaarhede van larwe -en pre-papiemeel van twee verskillende vliegspesies is. Die twee spesies wat in hierdie navorsing gebruik is, was Hermetia illucens, meer algemeen bekend as die venstervlieg (BSF), en Chrysomya chloropyga, wat ook bekend staan as die koperbrommer (CC). Die pre-papie van BSF het ʼn swart eksoskelet wat uit kitien bestaan en waarna verwys word as die BSF B. Die larwe, aan die anderkant, het ʼn wit kleur gehad en geen eksoskelet nie en daar word dus verwys na die BSF W. Verder was daar vir die BSF B en BSF W volvet (ff) en ontvette (df) behandelings, terwyl daar vir CC net ʼn volvetbehandeling (ff) was. Die vyf behandeings is as volg benoem: 1. BSF B ff – venstervlieg pre-papie, volvet. 2. BSF W ff – venstervlieg larwe, volvet. 3. CC ff – Chrysomya chloropyga, volvet. 4. BSF B df – venstervlieg pre-papie, ontvet. 5. BSF W df – venstervlieg larwe, ontvet. Die verskillende meelbehandelings is vir chemise samestelling ontleed in die Departement Veekundige Wetenskappe (Universiteit van Stellenbosch). Die analises het getoon dat larwe- en pre-papiemeel ʼn goeie potensiële bron van proteïen, aminosure en kalsium is. Twee proewe is gedoen om die effektiewe degradeerbaarheid (Deff) van die verskillende larwe-en pre-papiebehandelings te bepaal. Elk van die proewe het ʼn 48 uur inkubasieperiode ingesluit en sakkies is op die volgende tye verwyder: 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 en 48 ure. In die eerste proef was die Deff en rumen nie-degradeerbare proteïen (RUP) fraksie bereken deur ʼn in vitro verteringsproef. Die CC ff het die hoogste Deff (laagste RUP) waardes getoon en die twee onvette (df) behandelings (BSF B df en BSF W df) het hoër Deff waardes getoon as die volvet (ff) behandelings van dieselfde spesie. Die gevolgtrekking is gemaak dat die vetinhoud van die larwe- en pre-papiemeel negatief gekorreleerd was met degradeerbaarheid. Die tweede proef was ʼn herhaling van die in vitro proef maar hierdie keer is die degradeerbaarheid bepaal deur ʼn in sacco verteringsproef. Vir al vyf behandelings was die degradeerbaarheidswaardes wat in die in sacco proef verkry is, hoër as dié wat in die in vitro proef verkry is. Weereens het die CC ff die hoogste Deff waarde getoon. Verder het die onvette behandelings, soos in die geval van die in vitro proef, hoër Deff waardes getoon as die volvet behandelings vir elke vliegspesie. Die finale gevolgtrekking is gemaak dat die vetinhoud van vlieg- larwemeel en pre-papiemeel ʼn groot invloed het op die degradeerbaarheid van die meel. Dit word voorgestel dat verdere navorsing gedoen behoort te word om larwe- en pre-papiemeel meer doeltreffend te ontvet. Verskeie verwerkingsprosesse kan ook ondersoek word met die doel om die RUP waarde van die onderskeie mele te verhoog. Indien suksesvol toegepas, kan vlieglarwe- en pre-papiemeel oorweeg word in verdere studies as alternatiewe of plaasvervangerproteïenbronne vir vismeel.

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