Functional tools to determine injury risk in university netball players

le Roux, Dominic Christine (2015-03)

Thesis (M Sport Sc)--Stellenbosch University, 2016

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT : Screening tools are widely used by coaches and other professionals to determine the risk for injury in athletes. This can be done either pre-season or post-injury prior to an athlete returns-to-play. The screening process aims to identify risk factors, including incorrect movement patterns, decreased flexibility and dynamic balance, amongst others. A history of previous injury remains a major risk factor, due to various neural implications involved. Specific movement patterns occur within predetermined activation patterns and sequences. Post-injury, this sequence may alter and unless corrected, compensatory patterns occur. The aim of screening tools should be to identify these compensatory patterns, so as to identify which athletes have altered movements within the kinetic chain. The kinetic chain reactions are pre-determined and when altered, could lead to injury. The Netball Movement Screening Tool consists of four different components, namely the Movement Competency Screen, the Jump component, the Active Straight Leg Raise Test and the modified Star Excursion Balance Test. The Bunkie test is an isometric modified plank position, performed bilaterally in five different positions. The main aim of this study was to determine whether two specific screening tools, namely the Netball Movement Screening Tool (NMST) and the Bunkie test can be used as tools to predict injury in university netball players. Secondary aims include the following: to determine the inter- and intra-rater reliability of two components of the NMST and to determine the relationship between the modified Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and the modified Bunkie test results. This was a descriptive study and all participants were members of the Stellenbosch University netball club. Results revealed no significant findings for the logistic regression results, with an odds ratio of 0.47 (95% CI 0.13 – 1.65) and 1.00 (95% CI 0.98 – 1.02) for the Netball Movement Screening Tool (NMST) and Bunkie test, respectively. A weak to moderate correlation was found between the total modified Star Excursion Balance Test and total modified Bunkie test results (r = 0.36 – 0.43, r2 = 0.13 – 0.18, p ≤ 0.05). The inter- and intra-rater reliability (ICC agreement) for untrained raters were both 0.35 for the Movement Competency Screen and 0.34 and 0.64 for the Jump Category scores within the Netball Movement Screening Tool. iii The inter- and intra-rater reliabilities for trained raters revealed ICC agreements of 0.98 and 0.93 for the Movement Competency Screen only, since the Jump components’ agreement could not be calculated, due to a lack of variance. The NMST and total Bunkie score results could not be used to predict injury in this group of university netball players. A relationship exists between the total modified SEBT and total modified Bunkie test score results.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Verskeie metodes kan gebuik word deur afrigters en ander profesionele persone wat met atlete werk, om beserings te voorkom. Die vorkoming van beserings word uitgevoer deur risiko faktore te identifiseer, deur gebruik te maak van verskeie hulpmiddels. Toetse wat risiko faktore identifiseer om beserings te voorkom, kan ondermeer insluit bewegingspatrone, soepelheidstoetse, dinamiese balanseringstoetse of ander faktore wat verhoogde risiko vir beserings veroorsaak. ‘n Vorige besering word beskou as een van die groot risiko faktore vir toekomstige beserings, as gevolg van die neurale veranderinge wat plaasvind wanneer ‘n atleet beseer is. Hierdie veranderinge kan ook bewegingspatrone verander, wat voor die besering in spesifieke aktiverings patrone moet plaasvind. Die doel van die hulpmiddels om risiko faktore te identifiseer, is ook om atlete met versteurde beweginspatrone te identifiseer, binne ‘n bepaalde kinetiese ketting. Hierdie ketting-reaksie tydens beweging is voorafgestel en wanneer dit verander word deur eksterne faktore, soos vorige beserings, lei dit potensieël na volgende beserings. Die “Netball Movement Screening Tool” bestaan uit vier verskillende komponente, naamlik ‘n Bewegingsbevoegdheidstoets, ‘n Spring Toets, ‘n Soepelheidstoets en ‘n aangepaste Dinamisiese Balans Toets. Die Bunkie toets bestaan uit vyf verskillende, isometriese posisies wat gehou word en waarvan elke een van hierdie posisies bilateraal uitgevoer word. Die hoof doel van hierdie studie was om vas te stel of hierdie twee hulpmiddels, naamlik die “Netball Movement Screening Tool” en die totale Bunkie toets uitslae as funksionele toetse gebruik kan word om beserings te voorspel in universiteit netbal spelers. Sekondêre doelwitte sluit in die inter- en intra-puntebeheerder betroubaarheid van die “Netball Movement Screening Tool” vir onervare en ervare puntebeheerders, sowel as die bepaling van ‘n verwantskap tussen die aangepaste dinamiese balans toets (“Star Excursion Balance Test”) en totale aangepste Bunkie toets uitslae. Hierdie beskrywende studie is uitgevoer met deelnemers van die Universiteit van Stellenbosch se netbalklub lede. Statistiese toetse het getoon dat geen noemenswaardige bevindinge vir die logistieke regressie gevind is nie, met waardes van 0.47 (95% CI 0.131 – 1.654) en 1.00 (95% CI 0.983 – 1.021) vir die “Netball Movement Screening Tool” en die totale Bunkie toets uitslae. Swak tot gemiddelde korrelasies is bevind tussen die aangepaste Dinamiese Balans Toets en die Bunkie toets (r = 0.36 – 0.43, r2 = 0.13 – 0.18, p ≤ 0.05). Die inter- en intra-puntebeheerder se betroubaarheid (geraporteer as “ICC” ooreenstemmings) vir onervare puntebeheerders was albei 0.35 vir die Bewegingsbevoegdheidstoets en 0.34 en 0.64 vir die Spring komponente se uitslae, binne-in die “Netball Movement Screening Tool”. Dieselfde uitslae vir ervare puntebeheerders wys “ICC” ooreenstemmings van 0.98 en 0.93 vir die Bewegingsbevoegdheidstoets alleenlik, maar as gevolg van ‘n tekort aan verskille kan die ooreenstimming vir die Spring komponent deur geoefende puntebeheerders nie bepaal word nie. Hoewel die “Netball Movement Screening Tool” en totale “Bunkie” toets uitslae nie beserings kon voorspel nie, was daar ’n positiewe korrelasie tussen die totale Dinamiese Balans Toets en totale Bunkie toets uitslae.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/98712
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