Urban governance and spatial planning for sustainable urban development in Tamale, Ghana

Fuseini, Issahaka (2016-03)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2016.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study investigated urban governance and spatial planning practices for sustainable urban development in Tamale, Ghana, regarding provision and access to urban infrastructure and basic services. This broad aim of the study was divided into three objectives, namely to 1) review of the statutory provisions for the conduct of urban governance and spatial planning in Ghana and Tamale, 2) assess the spatio-temporal growth dynamics and provision of urban infrastructure and basic services in Tamale, and 3) to explore stakeholder engagement in spatial planning in the city. Research questions that guided the study were: a) what is the extent of the physical expansion of Tamale and how does urban governance respond to the growth dynamics regarding infrastructure and service provision?, b) to what extent does the spatial growth patterns of the city reflect local and national development aspirations, c) what national and local statutory frameworks guide the practice of urban governance and spatial planning, d) what are the modes of stakeholder engagement in urban governance and spatial planning and who are the stakeholders, and e) is the city’s urban governance inclusive and amenable to decentralisation, entrepreneurialism and democratisation (DED) principles? The DED analytical framework and collaborative planning theoretical perspective were adopted to analyse urban governance practices and outcomes in Tamale. Four evaluative questions were addressed using the DED and collaborative planning frameworks, namely how urban governance is lived in Tamale, whether urban governance leads to job creation, and for whom, whether urban governance results in improved urban services and whether urban governance empowers people at the grass roots and promotes accountable governance. A mixed methods research design was employed in the study. This comprised of quantitative analysis of the city’s spatial growth using remote sensing and geographic information systems techniques, and qualitative investigation of urban governance processes and outcomes. The results show that the legislative provisions guiding urban governance in Ghana have not been effective in promoting sustainable urban development leading to the country transitioning towards spatial development frameworks (SDFs) as alternative approaches. Also, both the city’s spatial and demographic growth has been phenomenal, but access to urban infrastructure and services has lagged behind. Moreover, there was limited stakeholder engagement in urban governance and that resulted in low accountability. In terms of the DED and collaborative planning frameworks, there were generally no straightforward answers to the evaluative questions, except with respect to the question of accountability, which was almost non-existent in the urban governance practices of Tamale. The study concludes by lauding efforts to reform urban governance laws and initiatives to engender participatory and partnership-based urban governance and service delivery in the city. It is recommended that these reforms should be encouraged and operationalised within real decentralisation, entrepreneurialism and democratisation. Comprehensive needs assessment, institutional and stakeholder capacity-building efforts, and empathic stakeholder engagements will be crucial in this regard, especially if social justice, economic viability, and environmental health and sustainability are considered in the management of the city’s urban growth. Further research is recommended to provide detailed understanding of urban governance outcomes in Tamale, such as the magnitude of job creation, distribution and sustainability.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie studie ondersoek stedelike bestuur en ruimtelike beplannings praktyke vir volhoubare stedelike ontwikkeling in Tamale, Ghana, in verband met voorsiening en toegang tot stedelike infrastruktuur en basiese dienste. Hierdie breë doelwit van die studie is opgedeel in drie subdoelwitte, naamlik 1) om hersiening van die statutêre voorsienings vir die gedrag van stedelike bestuur en ruimtelike beplanning in Ghana en Tamale te doen, 2) die ruimtelike-tydelike groei dinamika en voorsienings van stedelike infrastruktuur en basiese dienste in Tamale te assesseer, en 3) om die betrokkenheid van belanghebbendes in ruimtelike beplanning van die stad te verken. Navorsingsvrae wat die studie gelei het is as volg: a) wat is die aard van fisiese uitbreiding van Tamale, b) tot watter mate reflekteer die ruimtelike groeipatrone van die stad die plaaslike en nasionale ontwikkelings-aspirasies, c) watter nasionale en plaaslike statutêre raamwerke begelei die stedelike bestuur en ruimtelike beplanningspraktyke, d) wat is die modus van belanghebbende betrokkenheid in stedelike bestuur en ruimtelike beplanning en wie is die belanghebbendes, en e) is die stad se stedelike bestuur insluitend en ontvanklik tot desentralisasie, entrepreneurskap en demokratiserings (DED) beginsels? Die DED analitiese raamwerk en gesamentlike beplanning teoretiese perspektief was aangeneem om stedelike bestuurspraktyke en uitkomste in Tamale te analiseer. Vier evaluerende vrae is geadresseer deur middel van die DED en gesamentlike beplanningsraamwerke, naamlik hoe stedelike bestuur uitgeleef word in Tamale, of stedelike bestuur lei tot werkskepping en vir wie, of stedelike bestuur lei tot verbeterde stedelike dienste, en of stedelike bestuur mense bemagtig op die voetsoolvlak en verantwoorbare bestuur bevorder. ‘n Gemengde-metode navorsingsontwerp is gebruik in die studie. Dit bestaan uit kwantitatiewe analiese van die stad se ruimtelike groei met gebruik van afstandwaarneming en geografiese inligtingstelsels tegnieke, en kwalitatiewe ondersoek van stedelike bestuursprosesse en uitkomste. Die resultate wys dat die wetgewende bepalings wat stedelike bestuur in Ghana lei nie effektief was in die bevordering van volhoubare stadsontwikkeling nie, en lei tot die land se oorgang na ruimtelike ontwikkelingsraamwerke (SDFs) as alternatiewe benaderings. Beide die stad se ruimtelike en demografiese groei was ook fenomenaal, maar toegang tot stedelike infrastruktuur en dienste is agterblewend. Verder was daar beperkte belanghebbende betrokkenheid in stedelike bestuur wat gelei het tot lae aanspreeklikheid. In terme van die DED en gesamentlike beplanningsraamwerke, was daar oor die algemeen geen eenvoudige antwoorde vir die evaluerende vrae nie, behalwe die vrae in verband met van aanspreeklikheid wat amper nie bestaan in die stedelike bestuurspraktyke van Tamale nie. Die studie sluit af deur erkenning te gee aan pogings wat aangewend is vir die hervorming van stedelike bestuurswette en inisiatiewe om deelnemende en vennootskap-gebasseerde stedelike bestuur en dienslewering in die stad te kweek. Dit word voorgestel dat hierdie hervormings aangemoedig en operasioneel word binne werklike desentralisasie, entrepreneurskap en demokratisering. Omvattende-behoeftes assessering, institusionele en belanghebbende kapasiteitsbou-pogings, asook empatiese belanghebbende betrokkenheid sal deurslaggewend wees in hierdie opsig, veral indien sosiale geregtigheid, ekonomiese vatbaarheid, en omgewingsgesondheid en volhoubaarheid in ag geneem word in die bestuur van die stad se stedelike groei. Verdere navosing word voorgestel om ‘n gedetailleerde verstandhouding van stedelike bestuursuitkomste in Tamale van byvoorbeeld die grootte van werkskepping, verspreiding en volhoubaarheid, te voorsien.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/98655
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