A learning design framework for active learning using audience response systems

Faasen, Marinda (2016-03)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2016

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT : The aim of the study was to analyse the use of audience response activities as part of active learning at Stellenbosch University, South Africa, and to map out strategies to explore the most effective use of audience response technology. As developer of the audience response system that was used at Stellenbosch University, I was required to attend lectures to identify problems with the use of the technology. During these lectures I also identified a lack of pedagogical expertise in the integration of audience response activities as part of the lesson designs. Consequently a detailed research study into the pedagogical aspects of the integration of audience response technology as part of teaching and learning was undertaken. Audience response technology and the associated learning activities were analysed, using activity theory as an analytical basis. The study is framed within the pragmatic paradigm and uses Plowright's Framework for an Integrated Methodology (2011). Data capturing included observation of the lessons, interviews conducted with lecturers and completion of questionnaires by students. Five lecturers from five different disciplines took part in the study: Chemistry, Biochemistry, Logistics, Mathematics Education and English Education. The year groups consisted of one first year group, one second year group, two third year groups and one fourth year group. Class sizes ranged from 60 to 240 students per class. The study highlights several important issues, inter alia the lack of a common understanding of terminology in educational technology, which impedes dialogue and progress in this field. The study attempts to address this by explaining and defining some of the concepts relevant to this study. Another finding is that, if lecturers do not give adequate consideration to their pedagogical approach, their lesson planning is generally poor when they attempt to integrate new technology. Instructivism, constructivism and an integrated approach were examined and it was found that it is possible to follow an integrated approach in the design of audience response activities. Several process models and design models were studied and consideration of these models culminated in the development of a framework to be used for the development of audience response activities as part of active learning. This framework consists of a process model and a design model and includes factors like feedback and motivation, which are important aspects of active learning. Another issue that was identified in this study is the lack of meta-level communication between lecturers and students, as far as the learning process is concerned. Explaining to learners how learning takes place and why a new pedagogical approach is being introduced is a crucial aspect of student motivation. The conclusion of this study is that the effective integration of technology in education cannot be done haphazardly. It should be guided by well-informed strategies, accompanied by adequate pedagogical and technological support, as well as ongoing training.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Die doel van die studie was om die gebruik van die gehoorreaksie-aktiwiteite (audience response activities) as deel van aktiewe leer by Universiteit Stellenbosch, Suid-Afrika, te ontleed en om strategieë vir die doeltreffendste gebruik van gehoorreaksietegnologie te bepaal. As ontwerper van die gehoorreaksietegnologie wat deur die dosente by Universiteit Stellenbosch gebruik is, moes ek voorlesings bywoon om tegnologiese probleme wat tydens die gebruik van die tegnologie ontstaan het, te identifiseer. Tydens hierdie voorlesings het ek ook 'n gebrek aan pedagogiese kennis van dosente waargeneem wat die effektiewe integrasie van gehoorreaksietegnologie gestrem het. Dit was dus nodig om 'n volledige navorsingstudie aan te pak met betrekking tot die pedagogiese aspekte rondom die gebruik van gehoorreaksietegnologie om 'n raamwerk daar te stel wat deur dosente gebruik kan word in die integrasie van gehoorreaksietegnolgoie as deel van onderrig en leer. Gehoorreaksietegnologie en die gepaardgaande leeraktiwiteite is ontleed met behulp van die aktiwiteitsteorie as ’n analitiese basis. Die studie is benader vanuit ’n pragmatiese paradigma en gebruik Plowright se Raamwerk vir ’n Geïntegreerde Metodologie (2011). Data-insameling sluit waarneming van die lesse, onderhoude met dosente en vraelyste aan studente in. Vyf dosente van vyf verskillende dissiplines het aan die studie deelgeneem, naamlik Chemie, Biochemie, Logistiek, Wiskunde- Onderwys en Engels-Onderwys. Die jaargroepe het bestaan uit een eerstejaarsgroep, een tweedejaarsgroep, twee derdejaarsgroepe en een vierdejaarsgroep. Klasgroottes het gewissel van 60 tot 240 studente per klas. Die studie dui op ’n aantal belangrike kwessies. Eerstens, dat daar ’n gebrek aan ’n gemeenskaplike verstaan van terminologie in opvoedkundige tegnologie is wat gesprekvoering en vooruitgang in hierdie studieveld belemmer. Konsepte in opvoedkundige tegnologie wat vir hierdie studie relevant is, word verduidelik en gedefinieer. ’n Tweede belangrike kwessie is dat swak lesbeplanning die gevolg is as dosente, in hul poging om nuwe tegnologie te integreer, nie hul pedagogiese benadering na behore in ag neem nie. Instruktivisme, konstruktivisme en ’n geïntegreerde benadering is ondersoek en daar is bevind dat dit moontlik is om ’n geïntegreerde benadering in die ontwerp van gehoorreaksie-aktiwiteite te volg. Verskeie proses- en ontwerpmodelle is bestudeer en het gelei tot die ontwikkeling van ’n raamwerk wat gebruik kan word in die ontwikkeling van gehoorreaksie-aktiwiteite as deel van aktiewe leer. Hierdie raamwerk bestaan uit ’n proses- en 'n ontwerpmodel en sluit belangrike aspekte van aktiewe leer soos terugvoering en motivering in. ’n Derde belangrike kwessie wat in hierdie studie geïdentifiseer is, is die gebrek aan metavlak-kommunikasie oor die leerproses tussen dosente en studente. Die verduideliking aan leerders oor hoe leer plaasvind en waarom ’n nuwe pedagogiese benadering gevolg word, is 'n kritieke aspek van studente-motivering. Die gevolgtrekking van hierdie studie is dat die effektiewe integrasie van tegnologie in opvoedkunde nie lukraak gedoen kan word nie. Dit behoort gerig te word deur ingeligte strategieë saam met voldoende pedagogiese en tegnologiese ondersteuning sowel as deurlopende opleiding.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/98574
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