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Thermal analysis of commercially available water heaters: a focus on the South African national standard

dc.contributor.advisorVermeulen, H. J.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorReid, Gunnar Jamesen_ZA
dc.contributor.otherStellenbosch University. Faculty of Engineering. Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering.en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned2016-03-09T14:27:31Z
dc.date.available2016-03-09T14:27:31Z
dc.date.issued2016-03
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/98506
dc.descriptionThesis (MEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2016.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractENGLISH ABSTRACT: The improvement of energy efficiency in the residential sector is one of the simplest ways of making the use of resources more sustainable. One of the strategies used is to look at those household appliances that consume the most power. To minimise emissions and energy consumption, it is imperative to improve the efficiency and the MEPS levels of one of the highest electricity consumers in residential households, namely water heaters. This thesis presents an investigation of the South African standing loss standards of water heaters and tests locally manufactured water heaters to determine heat loss profiles and standing loss values. Using thermal imaging, the main sources of heat loss are identified. Post-test tear down analyses are conducted to determine the distribution of insulation, positioning of elements and unique design modifications done to minimise heat losses. Using variables and data obtained in a practical thermal decay test, equations are derived to predict the expected standing loss values. Thermodynamic simulations are conducted, using inter alia Rayleigh-Bénard Convection principles, to evaluate the effectiveness of water heater orientation and element orientation, element type and water heater mounting position as well as element mounting position. This is done with a view to gain insight on how to optimise design for flow patterns and heat distribution inside the water heater. The simulations showed that the use of CFD software is a powerful tool to assist in the understanding of water heater thermal behaviour of the water body for heat loss analysis purposes. Consequently, suggestions were made for the improvement of the standard to ensure that South Africa remains internationally competitive. Out of the tests and simulations came a different testing methodology, aimed at reducing power consumption and minimising the dependable variables in the standing loss test. The thesis concludes with design recommendations and suggestions for future work.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die verbetering van die energie-doeltreffendheid in die residensiële sektor is een van die eenvoudigste maniere om die gebruik van hulpbronne meer volhoubaar te maak. Een van die strategieë wat gebruik is, is om na die huishoudelike toestelle wat die meeste krag verbruik te kyk. Om uitstoot en energieverbruik te verminder, is dit noodsaaklik om die doeltreffendheid en die MEPS vlakke van een van die grootste elektrisiteitsverbruikers in residensiële huishoudings te verbeter, naamlik water verwarmers. Hierdie tesis bied 'n ondersoek van die Suid-Afrikaanse staande verlies standaarde van water verwarmers an en toetse plaaslik vervaardigde water verwarmers om hitteverlies profiele en staande verlies waardes te bepaal. Die gebruik van termiese beelding, is die belangrikste bronne van hitte verlies geïdentifiseer. Post-toets afbreek ontledings word gedoen om die verspreiding van isolasie, posisionering van elemente en enige unieke ontwerp veranderinge gedoen om hitte verliese te verminder bepaal. Die gebruik van veranderlikes en data wat in 'n praktiese termiese verval toets ingesamel is, is vergelykings afgelei om die verwagte verlies staande waardes te voorspel. Termodinamiese simulasies is uitgevoer, met behulp van onder andere Rayleigh-Benard Konveksie beginsels, om die doeltreffendheid van die water verwarmer oriëntasie en element oriëntasie, element tipe en water verwarmer toenemende posisie asook element toenemende posisie te evalueer. Dit word gedoen met die oog op die insig oor hoe om die ontwerp vir vloei patrone en hitte verspreiding binne-in die water verwarmer te optimaliseer. Die simulasies het getoon dat die gebruik van CFD sagteware 'n kragtige instrument is om te help in die begrip van water verwarmer termiese gedrag vir hitte verlies analise. Gevolglik is voorstelle gemaak vir die verbetering van die standaard om te verseker dat Suid-Afrika internasionaal mededingend bly. Uit die toetse en simulasies is 'n ander toets metode geskep, wat gemik is op die vermindering van energieverbruik en die vermindering van die betroubare veranderlikes in die staande verlies toets. Die tesis word afgesluit met ontwerp aanbevelings en voorstelle vir toekomstige werk.af_ZA
dc.format.extentxv, 185 pages : illustrationsen_ZA
dc.language.isoen_ZAen_ZA
dc.publisherStellenbosch : Stellenbosch Universityen_ZA
dc.subjectWater heaters -- Testingen_ZA
dc.subjectUCTDen_ZA
dc.subjectPower resourcesen_ZA
dc.subjectHot-water supplyen_ZA
dc.subjectEnergy consumption -- Managementen_ZA
dc.subjectWater heaters -- Standardsen_ZA
dc.subject
dc.titleThermal analysis of commercially available water heaters: a focus on the South African national standarden_ZA
dc.typeThesisen_ZA
dc.rights.holderStellenbosch Universityen_ZA


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