Effect of dietary energy and protein on the production parameters of slaughter ostriches (Struthio camelus var. domesticus)

Viviers, Swys Francois (2015-12)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: When modern man assumed the responsibility of domesticating animals for his own purposes, he directly accepted the responsibility associated with feeding and caring for them. Considering intensive production systems, nutrition is one of the most important aspects in maintaining healthy livestock as well as ensuring profitability is achieved. This is due to the fact that the feeding of the livestock is often the most expensive overhead cost encountered. In ostrich production systems, nutrition costs total an estimated 70 – 80% of the costs associated with rearing the birds from chick to slaughter. When dissecting the typical composition of these ostrich diets, it becomes evident energy and protein are two of the most important, and abundant, nutrients found. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of different concentrations of protein and energy in the diets of slaughter ostriches, on their production parameters. In the first study (Chapter 3), five diets with different protein concentrations were formulated across the four feeding phases of slaughter ostriches (pre-starter, starter, grower and finisher). Three replications per treatment were conducted resulting in 15 camps of ostriches. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found in the live weights of the birds at the end of each feeding phase except the finisher phase. In terms of the production parameters, differences (P < 0.05) were found for the dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and the feed conversion ratio (FCR). Results indicated that the birds on the middle diet (control) and on the diets containing proportionally higher protein concentrations, although not different from each other, consistently outperformed those on diets containing lower concentrations of protein. These trends were also evident when comparing the cold carcass and thigh weights of the treatment birds post-slaughter. Therefore, from a financial standpoint, it could be concluded that increasing the protein content of the diets beyond that level currently used in industry (control) is not sensible. The second study (Chapter 4) was an evaluation on the primary products harvested from the birds utilized in the first study, namely the feathers, skin and meat. The aim of the investigation was to determine if the dietary protein concentrations had any effect on these products. No differences (P > 0.05) were observed across the feather yields or classes measured, except for the ‘tail feathers’, where the birds fed the lowest protein levels in their diets yielded the fewest. Differences (P < 0.05) were however found in selected skin parameters measured. Decreased dietary protein resulted in smaller wet skin size, smaller sizes of the feather nodules, as well as smaller crust size after the tanning process was completed. However, this had no impact (P > 0.05) on the skin grades achieved. Hence it became clear that dietary protein has an impact on the skin size achieved, which did not translate into differences in skin quality. Similarly, it did not affect the feather yields or quality. Energy is the most important nutrient in livestock diets as it is the first limiting nutrient influencing intake. Therefore, in the third study (Chapter 5), treatments in the form of five different levels of energy in the diets of ostriches, were investigated. Structurally, the layout was similar to the first study with three replications per treatment yielding 15 camps of ostriches. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between the live weights of the birds after the pre-starter phase, but not overall after the completion of the trial. The middle diet (diet 3) containing 14.5 MJ ME/kg displayed the highest gains per day of 216.0 ± 8.08 g per chick. The results of the growth were mirrored in the production parameters (DMI, ADG, FCR), where no differences (P > 0.05) were found for the rest of the feeding phases. In a follow up investigation of the effects of dietary, this chapter focused on the impact these different energy levels (Chapter 5) had on the primary products harvested after slaughter (Chapter 6). In particular, the feather yield and quality, skin yield and selected quality parameters, as well as the chemical composition of the meat was studied. No differences were found (P > 0.05) across any of the feather yields or classes measured. Concerning the skin yields and quality, similar results were found with no differences (P > 0.05) between the crust sizes or grades. With regards to the proximate composition of the meat, no major effect (P > 0.05) was found as a result of the treatment diets. Therefore, dietary energy content exhibited little influence over the feather, skin and meat parameters measured in this study.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die oomblik toe die nuwerwetse mens die verantwoordelikheid aanvaar het vir die mak maak van diere vir sy eie gebruik, het hy direk die verantwoordelikheid aanvaar wat geassosieer word met hul voeding en versorging. Met inagneming van intensiewe produksiestelsels is voeding een van die belangrikste aspekte in die handhawing van gesonde vee asook om winsgewendheid te verseker. Dit is as gevolg van die feit dat die voeding van diere dikwels die grootste oorhoofse uitgawe is. In volstruisproduksiestelsels bereik die voedingskostes ‘n totale geskatte hoeveelheid van 70 – 80% van die kostes wat geassosieer word met die grootmaak van die voëls vanaf kuiken tot slagvoël. Wanneer die tipiese samestelling van hierdie volstruisdiëte ontleed word, is dit duidelik dat energie en proteïene twee van die mees belangrike en volopste voedingstowwe is wat gevind word. Hierdie studie was dus onderneem om die effek van verskillende konsentrasies proteïene en energie in die diëte van slagvoëls en hulle produksieparameters te ondersoek. Vir die eerste studie (Hoofstuk 3) is vyf diëte met verskillende proteïenkonsentrasies geformuleer vir die vier voedingsfases van slagvolstruise (voor-aanvangs, aanvangs, groei en afronding). Drie herhalings per behandeling is gebruik wat 15 volstruiskampe tot gevolg gehad het. Betekenisvolle verskille (P < 0.05) in die lewende gewig van die voëls is aan die einde van elke voedingsfase gevind, behalwe vir die afrondingsfase. In terme van die produksieparameters is verskille (P < 0.05) gevind vir die droë materiaalinname (DMI), gemiddelde daaglikse toename (GDT) en die voeromsetverhouding (VOV). Resultate het getoon dat voëls wat die middelste dieet (kontrole) en diëte wat proporsioneel hoër proteïenkonsentrasies bevat het, alhoewel hulle nie van mekaar verskil nie, konsekwent beter presteer het as die wat diëte met laer proteïenkonsentrasies ontvang het. Hierdie tendense is ook waargeneem toe die koue karkas- en dygewigte van die eksperimentele voëls na-doods vergelyk is. Vanuit ‘n finansiële oogpunt kan daar dus tot die gevolgtrekking gekom word dat dit nie sinvol sal wees om die proteïeninhoud van volstruisdiëte te verhoog bo die vlak wat tans in die industrie (kontrole) gebruik word nie. Tydens die tweede studie (Hoofstuk 4) is die primêre produkte (vere, velle en vleis) wat vanaf die volstruise in die eerste studie geoes is, geëvalueer. Die doel van hierdie studie was om te bepaal of die verskillende proteïenkonsentrasies in die dieet enige effek op hierdie produkte het. Geen verskille (P > 0.05) is by die veeropbrengste of die verskillende veertipes wat gemeet is, waargeneem nie, behalwe vir die stertvere, waar die voëls wat die laagste proteïenvlakke in hulle diëte ontvang het, die laagste opbrengs gelewer het. Verskille (P < 0.05) is egter gevind in die geselekteerde velparameters wat gemeet is. ‘n Vermindering in die proteïenkonsentrasie het ‘n kleiner nat velgrootte tot gevolg gehad, asook ‘n afname in knoppiegrootte nadat die looiproses voltooi is. Hierdie waarneming het egter geen invloed (P > 0.05) op die gradering van die velle gehad nie. Dit het dus duidelik na vore gekom dat die dieetproteïen wel die velgrootte wat bereik is, beïnvloed het, maar nie tot verskille in velkwaliteit gelei het nie. Veeropbrengs en –kwaliteit is ook nie deur die dieetproteïen beïnvloed nie. Energie is die eerste beperkende voedingskomponent wat voerinname bepaal. Gegewe die groot invloed wat dit op voerinname het, is dit dus die mees belangrike komponent in die dieet van vee. Vandaar dan die derde studie (Hoofstuk 5) waar die behandelings in die vorm van vyf verskillende energievlakke in die diëte van volstruise ondersoek is. Die struktuur en uitleg van die studie was soortgelyk aan die eerste studie met drie herhalings per behandeling wat 15 volstruiskampe tot gevolg gehad het. Betekenisvolle verskille (P < 0.05) is gevind tussen die lewende gewigte van die voëls na die voor-aanvangsfase, maar nie nadat die hele proefneming voltooi is nie. Die middelste dieet (dieet 3) wat 14.5 MJ ME/kg bevat het, het die hoogste toename per dag van 216.0 ± 8.08 g per kuiken opgelewer. Groeiresultate is weerspieël in die produksieparameters (DMI, GDT, VOV), waar geen verskille (P > 0.05) in die res van die voedingsfases gevind is nie. Tydens ‘n opvolgondersoek rakende die effek van dieet, het hierdie hoofstuk gefokus op die impak wat die verskillende energievlakke (Hoofstuk 5) op die primêre produkte wat na-doods geoes is. Daar is in besonder na die vere-opbrengs en –kwaliteit, velgrootte en geselekteerde kwaliteitparameters, asook die chemiese samestelling van die vleis gekyk. Geen verskille (P > 0.05) is by die veeropbrengste of die verskillende veertipes wat gemeet is, gevind nie. Met betrekking tot die velgroottes en -kwaliteit, is soortgelyke resultate gevind met geen verskille (P > 0.05) tussen die knoppiegrootte en –gradering nie. Met verwysing na die proksimale samestelling van die vleis is geen betekenisvolle effek (P > 0.05) as gevolg van die eksperimentele diëte waargeneem nie. Die inhoud van die dieetenergie het dus ‘n klein invloed op die vere-, vel- en vleisparameters wat in hierdie studie geëvalueer is, gehad.

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