Assessing the cyto-genotoxic impacts of un-neutralised and pH-neutralised acid mine drainage on the human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7

Botha, Shirmone (2015-12)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The use of toxicity tests to evaluate the quality of streams affected by mixtures such as acid mine drainage (AMD), adds value to assessments whereby site-specific toxicological data may identify toxicants that pose a threat to humans. To successfully evaluate the risk of combined mixtures, an improved understanding of the individual components, their uptake, metabolism, excretion and mode of action is required. This study aimed to identify the extent of AMD toxicity in a dose dependant manner on the MCF-7 cell line. The first study site associated with gold mining was chosen as the Tweelopies Stream situated in the Gauteng province of South Africa. The AMD effluent (un-neutralised) contaminating the Tweelopies Stream had undergone pH-neutralisation using a reactor-bed limestone technology incorporating the use of both calcium carbonate (CaCO3) powder and limestone beds. The second study site, the Kromdraai River, is situated in the eMalahleni region of South Africa where a predominance of coal mining exists. The pH -neutralisation of the AMD (un-neutralised) contaminated Kromdraai River was performed using a caustic soda (NaOH) precipitation technique. This study demonstrated the rapid and effective application of the comet assay as a screening tool for AMD-associated DNA breakages in the human cell line, MCF-7. Moreover, the study analysed parameters of cellular survival, DNA fragmentation and variations in morphologies indicative of cellular death. Collectively, the cyto-genetic aberrations observed in the MCF-7 cells as a result of exposure to gold and coal mining associated AMD, confirms the urgency of incorporating high-throughput screening in ecological toxicity assessment to evaluate cellular damage at genetic levels in low dose exposures where detection might be missed.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die gebruik van toksisiteitstoetse om die gehalte van strome te evalueer wat geraak word deur mengsels soos suur mynwater (SM), gee waarde aan spesifieke toksikologiese data van gifstowwe wat 'n bedreiging vir die mens kan identifiseer. Om die risiko van gekombineerde mengsels en hul individuele komponente beter te begrip en suksesvol evalueer, is hul opname, metabolisme, uitskeiding en modus van aksie nodig. Hierdie studie het gepoog om die omvang van SM-toksisiteit in 'n dosis afhanklike wyse op die MCF-7-sellyn te identifiseer. Die eerste studie-area wat gekies is, hou verband met goudmyn-ontginning, en is die Tweelopiesspruit, geleë in die Gauteng-provinsie van Suid-Afrika. Die SM-uitvloeisel (on-geneutraliseerde) wat die Tweelopiesspruit besoedel, het pH-neutralisasie ondergaan met behulp van die integrasie van 'n reaktor-bed kalksorpsietegnologie wat gebruik maak van beide kalsiumkarbonaat (CaCO3) poeier en kalksteenbeddens. Die tweede studie-area, is die Kromdraairivier geleë in die eMalahleni-streek van Suid-Afrika, waar steenkoolontginning die oorheersende aktiwiteit is. Die pH-neutralisasie van die SM (on-geneutraliseerde) in die geval van die Kromdraairivier word met behulp van 'n bytsoda (NaOH) neerslag tegniek, uitgevoer. Hierdie studie het die komeet-toets getoon as 'n vinnige en doeltreffende toepassing vir SM-geassosieerde DNA-breekskade in die menslike sel lyn, MCF-7. Verder het die studie parameters van sellulêre oorlewing, DNA-fragmentasie en variasies in sel morfologieë wat ‘n aanduiding van sellulêre dood is, ontleed. Gesamentlik dui die resultate daarop dat die sitogenetiese afwykings wat in die MCF-7-selle waargeneem is, as 'n gevolg van blootstelling aan goud- en steenkool-geassosieerde SM is. Die studie het verder die dringendheid van die integrasie van hoë-deurset tegnologieë in ekologiese toksisiteitstoetse in selle wat genetiese skade mag ondergaan, na 'n lae dosis blootstelling waar opsporing dalk gemis word, ondersteun.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/97830
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