Nutritional recovery practices of team sport athletes training at Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa

Malherbe, Maria Aletta (2015-12)

Thesis (MNutr)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.

Thesis

ENGLISH SUMMARY : Aim: To determine nutritional recovery practices of team sport athletes training at Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (NMMU), South Africa Objectives: i) To determine timing and macronutrient composition of recovery meals ii) to determine factors driving recovery food choices, iii) to identify sources of recovery nutrition information iv) to compare data to current literature recommendations for optimal recovery, and v) to compare athletes in terms of gender and sport code. Design: A cross-sectional study design with an analytical component. Setting: NMMU, Eastern Cape, South Africa Subjects: Qualifying students had to be 18 years of age or older, competent in English and part of a registered NMMU hockey (n=29), netball (n=26), or rugby (n=31) team. Methods: A multiple choice questionnaire was used to identify sources of recovery nutrition information and factors influencing choices. 24-Hour diet recalls were analysed to establish timing and macronutrient composition of recovery meals. Results: Eighty-six athletes including both females (53%, n=46) and males (47%, n=40); rugby (36%, n=31), netball (30%, n=26) and hockey (34%, n=29) voluntarily participated. Ninety-one percent (n=78) were between the ages of 19 and 24. Most athletes (86%, n=74) prepared their own recovery meals. Seventy-four athletes completed 24-hour diet recalls. Average daily macronutrient composition of all groups: fat (33 ± 8.7) percent of total energy, total protein (g/kg body weight (BW)/day) (1.49 ± 0.81); total carbohydrate (g/kg BW/day) (2.57 ±1.17). Eighty-eight percent (n=65) had a recovery meal after exercise. The average time lapse between exercise and the recovery meal was (40.5 ±28.27) minutes; with postexercise carbohydrate intake (g/kg BW) (0.52 ±0.42) and post-exercise protein intake (g) (29.96 ±18.76). The most important factors driving recovery food choices were: nutritional composition (35%, n=30), easy to prepare (34%, n=29) and it must fill them up (13%, n=11). Sports nutrition advice came mainly from coaches (35%, n=30), family and friends (24%, n=21). Average daily carbohydrate intake (all groups) of 2.57g/kg/day (±1.17) was significantly below recommended literature values (5-7g/kg/day) (p=0.00). Daily protein intake (all groups) of 1.5g/kg/day (±0.81) met literature guidelines (1.2-1.7g/kg/day). The average fat intake (all groups) of 34% (±8.7) of total energy was within guidelines 20-35% of total energy. An average time delay of 40.5 minutes (±28.3) was significantly (p=0.004) above literature recommendation (< 30 minutes after exercise). All groups failed to meet recovery carbohydrate intake post-exercise 0.52g/kg BW (± 0.42; p=0.00), with rugby players (0.35g/kg BW ±0.33; p=0.00) and males (0.34g/kg BW ±0.32; p=0.00) having the least recovery carbohydrates. Protein needs post-exercise (20-25g) was met (all groups) 29.96g (±18.75). Daily protein intake for male athletes (1.95g/kg BW ± 0.85; p=0.00) and rugby players’ (2.03g/kg BW ± 0.92; p=0.00) were significantly above literature recommendations (1.2-1.7g/kg BW), compared to female athletes (1.15 ±0.58; p=0.61) and netball players (1.00 ±0.58; p=0.12) where no statistical significance was found. Females had a significant time delay between exercise and the recovery meal of 50.12 minutes (± 31.02; p=0.00) compared to male athletes consuming recovery meal at 28.52 minutes (±18.9; p=0.67) after exercise. Netball players were found delaying recovery meal the most, with 59.64 minutes (±27.15; p=0.00) compared to hockey (33 minutes ± 30.01; p=0.64) and rugby players (29.88 minutes ±19.03; p=0.97) meeting recommendations. Conclusion: All participating athletes significantly failed to meet recommended recovery and daily carbohydrate intake for team sport athletes, with emphasis on protein consumption; males consuming significantly more than recommendations. The significant time delay found between exercise and the recovery meal could negatively impact performance when recovery time is short. Lack of knowledge in the basics of recovery nutrition and general misconceptions in the field of nutrition as well as time constraints and tight budgets are the most likely factors influencing recovery food choices. Coaches, family, and friends as educators should be included as part of nutritional education programmes.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : om voedings herstelpraktyke van spansport atlete by die Nelson Mandela Metroplitaanse Universiteit (NMMU) te bepaal. Doelwitte: i) om die tydsberekening, sowel as die makronutrient samestelling van die herstelmaaltyd te bepaal ii) om faktore te identifiseer wat herstelvoeding keuses beïnvloed, iii) om bronne te identifiseer wat atlete gebruik as herstelvoedings riglyne, iv) om data te vergelyk met literatuur aanbevelings, en v) om verskille in geslag en sport modaliteite rakende die bogenoemde aspekte te indentifiseer. Studie ontwerp: ‘n Dwarssnit studie met ‘n analitiese komponent. Omgewing: NMMU, Oos-Kaap, Suid-Afrika. Studiepopulasie: Alle atlete, Engelsvaardig, 18 jaar of ouer en deel van ‘n geregistreerde hokkie- (n=29), netball- (n=26), of rugbyspan (n=31), van NMMU is ingesluit. Metode: ‘n Multikeuse-vraelys is gebruik om faktore te bepaal wat keuses van die herstelmaaltyd beïnvloed, sowel as bronne van sportvoedingsinligting te identifiseer. 24-uurherroep- rekords is ontleed deur middel van FoodFinder III vir makronutrient samestelling, sowel as die tydeverloop tussen oefening en herstelmaaltyd. Resultate: Ses-en-tagtig atlete, insluitend vroue (53%, n=46) en (47%, n=40) mans het vrywillig deelgeneem; rugby- (36%, n=31), netball- (30%, n=26) en hokkiespelers (34%, n=29). Meeste van hierdie atlete (86%, n=74) berei hul eie herstelmaaltye voor. Vier-ensewentig atlete het 24-uur dieetrekords voltooi. Gemiddelde daaglikese makronutrient samestelling vir alle groepe was: vet (33 ± 8.7), totale proteïne (g/kg liggaamsmass (LM/dag) (1.49 ± 0.81) en koolhidraat (g/kg liggaamsmassa (LM/dag) (1.49 ± 0.81). Ag-en-tagtig persent (n=65) het ‘n herstelmaaltyd geneem na oefening. Die gemiddelde tydsverloop tussen oefening en die herstelmaaltyd was (40.5 ±28.27) minute; koolhidraat-inname na oefening was (g/kg LM) (0.52 ± 0.42 en protein-inname (g) (29.96 ± 18.76). Die belangrikste faktore wat die keuse van die herstelmaaltyd beïnvloed was: nutrient samestelling (35%, n=30); maklik om voorteberei (34%, n=29); en dit moet hul versadig laat (13%, n=11). Meeste sportvoedingsadvies kom van afrigters (35%, n=30), of familie en vriende (24%, n=21). Die gemiddelde daaglikse koolhidraat-inname vir alle groepe was: 2.57g/kg LM/dag (±1.17), en is beduidend minder as die literatuuraanbeveling (5-7g/kg/dag) (p=0.00). Daaglikse protein-inname vir alle groepe was 1.5g/kg LM/dag (±0.81) en voldoen aan die literatuuraanveling (1.2-1.7g/kg/dag). Gemiddelde vet inname vir alle groepe was 34% (±8.7) van totale energie en was binne literatuuraanbeveling van (20-35% TE). Gemiddelde tydsverloop tussen oefening en herstelvoeding van 40.5 minute (±28.3) is beduidend (p=0.004) langer as literatuuraanbeveling (<30 minutes). Geen groep het daarin geslaag om voldoende koolhidraat na oefening inteneem nie. Die gemiddelde inname vir alle groepe was 0.52g/kg LM (± 0.42g/kg LM; p=0.00), met rugby spelers (0.35g/kg LM ±0.33; p=0.00) en mans atlete (0.34g/kg LM ±0.32g/kg LM; p=0.00) wat die minste koolhidraat inneem na oefening. Alle atlete het wel aan die proteinaanbeveling na oefening (20-25g) voldoen met ‘n gemiddelde inname van 29.96g (±18.75) vir alle groepe. Mans atlete (1.95g/kg/ LM ± 0.85; p=0.00) en rugbyspelers (2.03g/kg LM ± 0.92; p=0.00) se daaglikse protein-inname was beduidend meer as literatuuraanbeveling (1.2-1.7g/kg LM) in vergelyke met vroue atlete (1.15g/kg LM ±0.58; p=0.61) en netbalspeelsters (1.00g/kg LM ±0.58; p=0.12) waar geen beduidende verskil gevind is tussen inname en literatuuraanbevelings nie. Vroue neem beduidend langer as literatuuraanbeveling voor hul ‘n herstelmaaltyd neem na oefening, gemiddeld 50.12 minute (± 31.02; p=0.00) in vergelyke met mans atlete wat herstelmaaltyd neem gemiddeld 28.52 minute (±18.9; p=0.67) na oefening. Die langste vertraging na oefening voordat herstelmaaltyd geneem is, was onder die netbalspeelsters waar herstelmaaltyd eers na.64 minute (±27.15; p=0.00) geneem is in vergelyke met hokkie spelers (33 minutes ± 30.01; p=0.64) en rugby spelers (29.88 minute ±19.03; p=0.97) wat wel aan literatuur behoeftes voldoen. Gevolgtrekking: Geen deelnemende atletes het daar in geslaag om voldoende herstel- sowel as daaglikse koolhidraate in te neem volgens literatuur aanbeveel word nie. Klem was gelê op proteïn inname, met mans wat beduidend meer per dag en as deel van die herstelmaaltyd inneem. Die lang tydsverloop na oefening voordat ‘n herstelmaaltyd ingeeeem word kan spel negatief beïnvloed veral waar hersteltyd tussen oefening beperk is. ‘n Tekort aan basiese inligting relevant tot herstelvoeding, sowel as tyd, en die koste van maaltye, was die mees algemeenste faktore wat die keuse van die herstelmaaltyd beïnvloed. Afrigters, familie, en vriende behoort ingesluit te word by herstelvoeding onderrigprogramme.

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