'n Voorlopige ondersoek na die stand van onderwys in geselekteerde skole in die Wes-Kaap na 1994
CITATION: Le Cordeur, M. 2012. ’n Voorlopige ondersoek na die stand van onderwys in geselekteerde skole in die Wes-Kaap na 1994. Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe, 50(4):520-540.
The original publication is available at http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_issuetoc&pid=0041-475120100004&lng=en&nrm=iso
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die Universiteit Stellenbosch verkeer onder druk om sy diversiteitsprofiel te verbeter sodat dit in lyn is met die transformasiedoelwitte van die regering soos uiteengesit in die Witskrif op Hoër Onderwys van 1997. Terselfdertyd is die Universiteit onder druk om ’n rol te speel in armoedeverligting van die benadeelde gemeenskappe rondom Stellenbosch. Die gehalte van die onderwys in die voorheen benadeelde skole is egter so swak dat baie min leerders uit hierdie gemeenskappe kwalifiseer om hul studies op universiteit voort te sit. In reaksie op hierdie uitdagings het die Universiteit ’n opvoedkundige filosofie aanvaar wat bekend staan as ’n “pedagogie van hoop” (Freire 1970). Dit het gelei tot die ontstaan van inisiatiewe soos die Rachel’s Angels-skolevennootskapsprojek, gegrond op die beginsels van gemeenskapsinteraksie. Die projek het ten doel om die kapasiteit van belowende leerders uit benadeelde gemeenskappe te verbeter met behulp van ’n mentorskapprogram sodat hul kanse op toegang tot universiteit sal verbeter. Hierdie artikel gee ’n oorsig van hierdie projek, waarna ’n impakstudie volg om te bepaal of die projek die verwagte uitkomste bereik het. Die bevindinge van die impakstudie dui daarop dat, uit die benadeelde skole wat aan die projek deelneem, meer leerders universiteitstoelating kry, groeipyne ten spyt. So word betekenis gegee aan die Universiteit se strewe na ’n “pedagogie van hoop”.
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Since South Africa became a democracy in 1994, the country has been subjected to deep-rooted socio-political and socio-economic change which inevitably has left its mark on the education system. Because there were just too many inequalities and injustices it made sense that the education system had to change. There are concerns, however, that the new education system does not deliver the expected results. The current pool of human capital in the Western Cape does not demonstrate the knowledge and skills required for the province to implement its socio-economic development programme(s). Subsequently the human capital development strategy was launched to address certain challenges in the province, such as the high unemployment rate among youth and the lack of skills to take advantage of work and entrepreneurial opportunities. The strategy has a threefold aim namely to improve the following key strands: the conditions of education, the environment of education and the quality of education, each with its own education foci. In this paper the current state of post-apartheid education in South Africa with special reference to the Western Cape is investigated by measuring it against the human capital development strategy. By using a literature review the following education foci are examined: school management and governance; basic functionality, school infrastructure and provision of educators; transformation; a positive school climate; the role of teacher unions; parental involvement; school safety, security and health; a relevant curriculum; quality of teaching and teacher development; and learner performance. This is done in order to determine what progress, if any, has been made since 1994 to develop a pool of human capital in the province that will be able to face the challenges of the new democracy. During the second phase of this study each focus was investigated by means of a questionnaire administered at sixty selected primary and secondary schools in the Western Cape. Principals at these schools were asked to complete the questionnaires because “[q]uestionnaires are a good way of collecting certain types of information quickly and relatively cheaply as long as subjects are sufficiently disciplined” (Bell 1998:76). During the design of the questionnaire it was decided to make use of closed questions because the structure imposed on the respondents’ answers provides the researcher with information which is of uniform length and in a form that lends itself nicely to being qualified and compared (Denscombe 1998:101). It was not practical to have the questionnaire completed by all the schools in the Western Cape. Therefore it was decided to take the option of a representative sample “because the researcher has some notion of the probability that these will be a representative cross-section of the whole” (Denscombe 1998:34). The researcher ensured that the sample was representative of all schools in the Western Cape with regards to race, previous departments, language and income. It must be taken into consideration that most schools in the Western Cape cater for the poor and middle class Afrikaans speaking Coloured1 population. Participating schools came from poor, middle class and wealthy schools. With regards to the former education departments the sample was representative of former Model C-schools, (white), Council of Representatives (coloured) and the Department of Education and Training (black). As far as Language of Learning and Teaching (LoLT) is concerned, both Afrikaans and English schools as well as double medium schools were included in the survey. The responses from the principals were compared with the data obtained from the literature review. From the results it is clear that although the education department has made significant progress with three key aspects of education, i.e. the conditions of education, the environment of education and the quality of education in the province, there is still some work to be done before the youth in this province, especially in black schools, will be in a position to take up their rightful place in a democratic society.