Profile of diabetic complications amongst diabetics attending internal medicine outpatient department and family medicine outpatient department in Dora Nginza Hospital, PE hospital complex
Thesis (MFamMed)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Introduction: Diabetes is the most prevalent endocrinology problem encountered in primary care practice. If recent trends showing a dramatic increase in prevalence (believed to be a consequence of a decline in physical activity and excessive caloric intake) continue, then the condition will soon affect nearly 20 million people in the U.S a reflection of the global trend. Effective management requires care that is thoughtful and meticulous, incorporating intensive patient education. Euglycemic control, with the level of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) kept below 7.0mmol/L, has emerged as a major treatment objective because of its association with a marked reduction in the risk for micro vascular complications. The primary physician is in the unique position to provide comprehensive care to the diabetic patient. Setting: The aim of this study is to evaluate the profile of complications arising due to diabetes mellitus among adult diabetics attending internal medicine outpatient department and family medicine/primary care outpatient department in the Dora Nginza hospital, PE hospital complex. Method: The study is a descriptive retrospective study in which names of patients were collated from clinic records of both clinics, files sought at the records department covering the period between Jan 2007 and Jan 2008 inclusive. Prevalence of statistical variables was generated using frequency tables, bar graphs, cross tabulations and chi square test. Results: Hyperglycemia was the major complication which predominantly was associated with high haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels. However, some hyperglycaemic cases were also found to be associated with normal HbA1c. Complications were found to be more in type 2 diabetics. Patients with hypertension, obesity, smoking and alcohol use were observed to have a higher risk of developing diabetic complications. The findings on retinopathy in this study was inconclusive in view of the fact that patients sent for fundoscopy did not return with documented results from the sister hospital PE provincial hospital. Family Medicine outpatient department overall did better in patient care compared to the Internal Medicine outpatient department. Conclusion: The challenge for the primary care physician is to design a therapeutic program that is safe practical and acceptable to the patient. The ultimate goal of therapy is the prevention of micro vascular and macro vascular complications, consequence of diabetes that makes the condition a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, stroke, visual impairment, renal failure, impotence, peripheral neuropathy, limb loss and ultimately death. These can be averted through appropriate education of both hospital staff, patients and their care givers. The recommendations made are based on the findings of the study.
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