Glycerol production in plasmodium falciparum : towards a detailed kinetic model

Adams, Waldo Wayne (2015-02-24)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Having caused the deaths of more than 10 million individuals since 2000 with most of them occurring in Africa, malaria remains a serious disease that requires undivided attention. To this end a detailed kinetic model of Plasmodium falciparum glycolysis was constructed, validated and used to determine potential drug targets for the development of novel, effective antimalarial therapies. The kinetic model described the behaviour of the glycolytic enzymes with a set of ordinary differential equations that was solved to obtain the steady state fluxes and concentrations of internal metabolites. The model included a glycerol branch represented in a single fitted equation. This present study set out to detect, characterise, and incorporate into the model the enzymes that constitute the glycerol branch of P. falciparum glycolysis. The kinetic parameters of glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), the first enzyme in the branch and catalyst of the dihydroxyacetone phosphosate (DHAP) reducing reaction, was determined and added to the detailed kinetic model. The model was subsequently validated by comparing its prediction of steady state fluxes with experimentally measured fluxes. Once it was evident that the predictions of the unfitted model agreed with experimentally measured fluxes, metabolic control analysis was performed on this branched system to ascertain the distribution of control over the steady state flux through the glycerol branch. The control G3PDH exercised over its own flux was less than expected due to the enzyme’s sensitivity to changes in NADH and thus the redox balance of the cell. Attempts were made to detect the enzymes responsible for the conversion of glycerol 3-phosphate (G3P) to glycerol. Very low levels of glycerol kinase activity was observed. Although G3P-dependent release of inorganic phosphate was detected results were inconclusive as to whether a non-specific phosphatase also mediated the conversion. Overall, the expansion of the model to include G3PDH did not affect the steady state metabolite concentrations and flux adversely.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Vanaf die jaar 2000 het malaria die dood van meer as 10 miljoen mense veroorsaak. Die meeste sterftes het in Afrika voorgekom —’n aanduiding van hoe ernstige siekte dit is en een wat onverdeelde aandag moet geniet. Om hierdie rede is ’n gedetaileerde kinetiese model van glikoliese in Plasmodium falciparum gebou, gevalideer en gebruik om potensiële dwelm teikens te identifiseer vir die ontwikkeling van nuwe, meer effektiewe anti-malaria terapieë. Die kinetiese model beskryf die gedrag van die glikolitiese ensieme in terme van gewone differensiële vergelykings wat opgelos is om die bestendige toestand fluksies en interne metaboliet konsentrasies te bepaal. Die model sluit ’n gliserol-tak in wat deur ’n enkele aangepaste vergelyking verteenwoordig word. Hierdie studie het voorgeneem om die ensieme van die gliserol-tak van P. falciparum glikoliese te identifiseer, karakteriseer en in die model te inkorporeer. Ons het die kinetiese parameters van die eerste ensiem in die gliserol-tak, gliserol 3-fosfaat dehidrogenase (G3PDH), die katalis van die dihidroksiasetoon fosfaat(DHAP) reduserende reaksie, bepaal. Die kinetiese parameters is by die gedetaileerde model gevoeg. Validering het plaasgevind deur die model se voorspellings met eksperimenteel bepaalde waardes te vergelyk. Toe dit duidelik geword het dat die voorspellings van die model met die eksperimenteel bepaalde fluks ooreenstem, is metaboliese kontrole analiese op die vertakte sisteem uitgevoer. Dit is gedoen om vas te stel hoe die bestendige toestand fluks deur die gliserol-tak beheer word. G3PDH het nie volle beheer oor sy eie fluks nie, in teenstelling met ons vergewagtinge. Daar is gepoog om vas te stel watter ensieme verantwoordelik is vir die produksie van gliserol vanuit gliserol 3-fosfaat (G3P). ’n Lae gliserolkinase aktiwiteit is waargeneem. Alhoewel G3P afhanklike vrystelling van anorganise fosfaat waargeneem is, is dit nie duidelik vanuit die resultate of die proses deur ’n nie-spesifieke fosfatase uitgevoer word nie. Die uitbreiding van die model om ’n G3PDH vergelyking in te sluit het nie die bestendige toestand metaboliet konsentrasies en fluks negatief geaffekteer nie.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/97159
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