Multi-mode antennas for hemispherical field-of-view coverage

Prinsloo, David Schalk Van der Merwe (2015-03)

Thesis ((PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This dissertation proposes a multi-mode antenna element excited through a multiconductor feed. It is shown that each of the orthogonal transverse electromagnetic modes supported by the antenna feed results in a unique radiated far-field pattern that collectively allow for nearhemispherical field-of-view coverage. Three multi-mode antenna designs are presented: a dual-mode antenna, integrating a single linearly polarised dipole antenna with a co-located monopole, as well as two quad-mode antenna designs integrating two dual-polarised dipole elements with a co-located monopole element. The dual-mode antenna is excited through a balanced transmission line feed supporting both differential- and common-mode signals that, respectively, result in typical dipole-over-ground and monopole radiated far-field patterns. The quad-mode antennas are each fed through a quadraxial transmission line allowing for excitation through four orthogonal transverse electromagnetic port modes. To characterise the multi-mode response of the multi-mode antennas, generalised transformations are derived by which the multi-mode S-parameters and radiated far-fields can be calculated from the S-parameters and far-fields corresponding to single-ended excitations. These transformations are implemented to validate the response of a dual-mode and quad-mode antenna design through measurements. An equivalent network representation for active multi-mode antennas is presented, including generalised transformations relating the multi-mode signal and noise response of the low-noise amplifiers to the two-port S-parameters and noise parameters of the low-noise amplifiers. Through the use of classical beamforming algorithms, the performance of an active dual-mode and quadmode antenna is presented. In the case of the active dual-mode antenna, it is shown that through the added use of common-mode signals, a variation in sensitivity of less than 50% is achieved in the E-plane. Similarly, the additional excitation modes supported by the active quad-mode antenna is shown to result in a significant improvement in the polarimetric capabilities over the field-of-view coverage.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie proefskrif stel ’n multimodale antenna element voor wat deur ’n multi-geleier transmissielyn gevoer word. Dit word gewys dat elk van die ortogonale transversale elektromagnetiese opwekkingsmodusse wat deur die antenna voer ondersteun word, ’n unieke vêrveld stralingspatroon skep, wat gesamentlik lei tot ’n hemisferiese gesigsveld. Drie multimodale antenna ontwerpe word voorgestel: ’n dubbelmodale antenna, waarin ’n enkel lineêrgepolariseerde dipool antenna en monopool mede-geleë word, asook twee viermodale antenna ontwerpe waarin twee dubbelgepolariseerde dipool elemente geïntegreer word met medegeleë monopool antenna elemente. Die dubbelmodale antenna word gevoer deur ’n gebalanseerde transmissielyn wat beide differensiële- en gemene-modus seine ondersteun, waar elk onderskeidelik dipool-oor-aardvlak en monopool stralingspatrone voortbring. Die viermodale antennas word elk gevoer deur vier-as transmissielyne wat vier ortogonale transversale elektromagnetiese opwekkingsmodusse ondersteun. Om die multimodale gedrag van die drie multimodale antennas te karakteriseer, word veralgemeende transformasies afgelei waardeur die multimodale strooiingsparameters asook die vêrveld stralingspatrone vanaf enkelpoort strooiingsparameters en vêrvelde bereken word. Hierdie transformasies word toegepas om die gedrag van ’n dubbel- en viermodale antenna ontwerp te karakteriseer deur metings. Ekwivalente netwerkvoorstellings vir aktiewe multimodale antennas word voorgestel, insluitend veralgemeende transformasies om die multimodale sein asook ruis gedrag van die lae-ruis versterkers betreklik te maak tot die tweepoort strooiingsparameters en ruisparameters van die laeruis versterkers. Deur gebruik te maak van klasieke bundelvormingsalgoritmes, word die gedrag van aktiewe dubbelmodale en viermodale antennas voorgestel. Vir die aktiewe dubbelmodale antenna word daar aangedui dat die gesamentlike gebruik van differensiële- en gemene-modus seine, ’n variasie in sensitiwiteit onder 50% tot gevolg het in die E-vlak. Soortgelyk word daar aangedui dat die addisionele opwekkingsmodusse wat deur die aktiewe viermodale antenna ondersteun word, tot ’n beduidende verbetering in die polarisasievermoë oor die gesigsveld lei.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/97008
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