Determinants of work engagement and organisational citizenship behaviour amongst nurses

Herholdt, Karin (2015-04)

Thesis (MCom)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: South Africa has a population of just over 50 million people. However, there are only approximately 260 698 nurses according to the register of the South African Nursing Council. The nursing shortage is not only limited to South Africa, but is a global phenomenon, and this shortage is getting worse every day. Various factors can be blamed for the increasing nursing shortage. Every day nurses face demanding working hours, stressful work environments and a large shortage of resources. Nurses from private hospitals regard themselves as "overworked money-making machines". Nevertheless, the health care needed by the population of South Africa is rapidly increasing. The high prevalence of HIV/AIDS is also a challenging contributor, worsening the nursing shortage crisis. The current dysfunctional nursing situation in the healthcare facilities of South Africa reflects a negative image of the nursing profession. Consequently, the number of individuals considering nursing as a profession is decreasing. The nursing shortage is not only a threat to the wellbeing of nurses, but to the lives of millions of South Africans who need health care. A common phenomenon amongst nurses is burnout, which leads to decreased quality of care and high turnover rates and contributes to the nursing shortage. Also, other nurses experience work engagement and display organisational citizenship behaviour in the same working environments than the nurses who experience burnout. Work engagement (WE) and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) are ideal outcomes. This study investigated distinguishing factors between nurses that allow them to experience WE and exhibit OCB. The Job Demands-Resources model played an integral role in the study. Therefore, the specific focus of the study was job and personal resources, as well as job demands, as factors contributing to WE and OCB amongst nurses. Servant leadership (SL) as job resource, psychological capital (PsyCap) as personal resource, and IT (Illegitimate tasks) as job demand were identified as possible factors that explain the variance in WE and OCB. A literature review was conducted in which prominent antecedents of WE and OCB were identified. A number of hypotheses were formulated and tested by means of an ex post facto correlation design. The unit of analysis was nurses from two of the largest private hospital groups in South Africa. The nurses were employed at one hospital in Gauteng and three hospitals in the Western Cape. Data was collected from 208 nurses located within the chosen hospitals. Data collection on all five variables, namely work engagement, organisational citizenship behaviour, servant leadership, psychological capital and IT, was conducted by means of self-administered questionnaires. The measurements included in the self-administered questionnaire were selected in terms of their validity and reliability. The following measurements were included; Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), Organisational Citizenship Checklist (OCB-C), Servant Leadership Questionnaire (SLQ), Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ) and the Bern Illegitimate Task Scale (BITS). The data collected was analysed by means of item analyses and structural equation modelling. A PLS path analysis was conducted to determine the model fit. The most significant findings were that SL, as a job resource, and PsyCap, as a personal resource, were positively related to WE amongst nurses. The results also revealed that PsyCap was positively related to OCB. Lastly, it was found that IT, as a job demand, are negatively related to WE amongst nurses. These results support the assumptions of the JD-R model that specific job and personal resources lead to WE. The results provide guidelines regarding practical managerial implications and strategies to address the challenges experienced by nurses. The results, together with the managerial implications, made it possible to provide valuable insights and recommendations for industrial psychologists, as well as for further studies.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Suid-Afrika het ‘n bevolking van net oor die 50 miljoen mense. Daar is egter volgens die register van die Suid-Afrikaanse Verpleegkunderaad net omtrent 260 698 verpleërs. Die tekort aan verpleërs is nie net tot Suid-Afrika beperk nie, maar is ‘n globale fenomeen, en die tekort word elke dag groter. Verskeie faktore kan vir die toenemende verpleërtekort blameer word. Verpleërs word elke dag gekonfronteer met veeleisende werksure, stresvolle werksomstandighede en ‘n groot tekort aan hulpbronne. Verpleërs by privaat hospitale beskou hulleself as “oorwerkte geldmaakmasjiene”. Nietemin neem die gesondheidsorg wat deur die Suid-Afrikaanse bevolking benodig word, vinnig toe. Die hoë voorkoms van MIV/VIGS is ook ‘n uitdagende bydraer wat die verpleërtekort vererger. Die huidige wanfunksionele verpleegtoestand in die gesondheidsorgfasiliteite van Suid-Afrika word weerspieël in die negatiewe beeld van die verpleegberoep. Gevolglik verminder die getal mense wat verpleging as ‘n beroep oorweeg. Die verpleërtekort bedreig nie net die welstand van verpleërs nie, maar ook die lewens van miljoene Suid-Afrikaners wat gesondheidsorg benodig. ‘n Algemene verskynsel onder verpleërs is uitbranding (burnout), wat lei tot ‘n afname in die kwaliteit van sorg en hoë omsetkoerse en bydra tot die verpleërtekort. Ander verpleërs ervaar egter werksbetrokkenheid (work engagement) en vertoon organisatoriese burgerskapsgedrag (organisational citizenship behaviour) in dieselfde omgewing waar verpleërs uitbranding ervaar. Werksbetrokkenheid en organisatoriese burgerskapsgedrag is ideale uitkomstes. Hierdie studie het onderskeidende faktore onder verpleërs ondersoek wat hulle toelaat om werksbetrokkenheid te ervaar en organisatoriese burgerskapsgedrag te vertoon. Die model van werkseise en hulpbronne (Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model) het ‘n integrale rol in die studie gespeel. Die spesifieke fokus van die studie was dus op werks- en persoonlike hulpbronne, sowel as werkseise, as faktore wat bydra tot werksbetrokkenheid en organisatoriese burgerskapsgedrag onder verpleërs. Dienaarleierskap en sielkundige kapitaal as werkshulpbronne, en illegitieme take as werkseis, is geïdentifiseer as moontlike faktore wat die verskil in betrokkenheid en organisatoriese burgerskapsgedrag verklaar. ‘n Literatuuroorsig is onderneem waarin belangrike antesedente van betrokkenheid en organisatoriese burgerskapsgedrag geïdentifiseer is. ‘n Aantal hipoteses is geformuleer en deur middel van ‘n ex post facto korrelasie-ontwerp getoets. Die eenheid van analise was verpleërs werksaam by twee van die grootste privaathospitaalgroepe in Suid-Afrika. Die verpleërs was werksaam by een hospitaal in Gauteng en drie hospitale in die Wes-Kaap. Data is by 208 verpleërs in die gekose hospitale versamel. Dataversameling oor al vyf veranderlikes, naamlik werksbetrokkenheid, organisatoriese burgerskapsgedrag, dienaarleierskap, sielkundige kapitaal en illegitieme take, is deur middel van selftoepasvraelyste versamel. Die volgende metings is ingesluit: Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), Organisational Citizenship Checklist (OCB-C), Servant Leadership Questionnaire (SLQ), Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ) en die Bern Illegitimate Task Scale (BITS). Die versamelde data is deur middel van item-ontleding en struktuurvergelykingsontleding geanaliseer. ‘n Gedeeltelike kleinstekwadrate-baananalise (partial least squares path analysis) is onderneem om die passing van die model te bepaal. Die belangrikste bevindinge was dat dienaarleierskap, as ‘n werkshulpbron, en sielkundige kapitaal, as ‘n persoonlike hulpbron, positief verband hou met werksbetrokkenheid onder verpleërs. Die resultate toon ook dat sielkundige kapitaal positief verband hou met organisatoriese burgerskapsgedrag. Laastens is bevind dat illegitieme take, as ‘n werkseis, negatief verband hou met werksbetrokkenheid onder verpleërs. Hierdie resultate ondersteun die aannames van die model van werkseise en hulpbronne (J-DR) dat spesifieke werks- en persoonlike hulpbronne lei tot werksbetrokkenheid. Die resultate verskaf riglyne vir praktiese bestuursimplikasies en strategieë om die uitdagings wat deur verpleërs ervaar word, aan te spreek. Die resultate, tesame met die bestuursimplikasies, het dit moontlik gemaak om waardevolle insigte en aanbevelings vir bedryfsielkundiges, asook vir verdere studies, te maak.

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