An investigation into the influence of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) on androgen metabolism in normal and prostate cancer cells

Du Toit, Therina (2015-04)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In this study, the influence of rooibos on the catalytic activity of enzymes 17β -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 (17βHSD3), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5 (AKR1C3), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (17βHSD2), 5α-reductase type 1 (SRD5A1) and 5α-reductase type 2 (SRD5A2), which catalyse prostate androgen metabolism, was investigated. The activities of both 17βHSD3 and AKR1C3 heterologously expressed in CHO-K1 and HEK293 cells were inhibited significantly by rooibos, with rooibos reducing the conversion of androstenedione (A4) and 11keto-androstenedione (11KA4) to testosterone (T) and 11ketotestosterone (11KT), respectively. The catalytic activity of 17βHSD2 towards T, 11hydroxytestosterone (11OHT) and 11KT was also significantly inhibited by rooibos in transiently transfected HEK293 cells. In transiently transfected HEK293 cells rooibos did not inhibit SRD5A1 while the rate of T conversion to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by SRD5A2 was decreased. Analysis of steroid metabolism in PNT2 cells also suggests that rooibos does not modulate the catalytic activity of endogenously expressed SRD5A towards A4, however, the conversion of T to DHT was reduced. In addition, reductive 17βHSD activity towards A4 was inhibited in the presence of rooibos in both PNT2 and BPH-1 cells. In contrast, the conversion of 11KA4 to 11KT was inhibited in BPH-1, PC-3 and LNCaP cells, with negligible conversion of 11KA4 in PNT2 cells. Interestingly, data suggests inhibition of 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 (AKR1C2) activity in the production of androsterone (AST) from 5α–androstenedione (5α-dione), as well as the dehydrogenase reaction of T to A4 in PNT2 cells by rooibos. Androgen metabolism pathways were subsequently investigated in LNCaP cells to determine androgen metabolism by endogenous enzymes. Rooibos resulted in the reduced conversion of A4 in LNCaP cells to the same extent as indomethacin, a known AKR1C3 inhibitor. Rooibos also modulated T, DHT and AST metabolism in LNCaP cells. Furthermore, uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) activity in LNCaP cells was inhibited by rooibos, decreasing T-, DHT– and AST-glucuronide formation. These data prompted subsequent investigations into the influence of rooibos at cellular level, and prostatespecific antigen (PSA) levels were assayed in the presence of rooibos. PSA was significantly inhibited by rooibos in the absence and presence of DHT, suggesting possible interaction of rooibos with the mutated androgen receptor (AR) or estrogen receptor-β (ERβ) expressed in LNCaP cells. Taken together, rooibos inhibited the catalytic activity of key enzymes that catalyse the activation of androgens in the prostate, as well as inhibiting enzymes involved in the conjugation of androgens. At cellular level, PSA levels were also decreased by rooibos, possibly through AR or ERβ interactions – clearly indicating a modulatory role for rooibos in active androgen production.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In hierdie studie was die invloed van rooibos ten opsigte van die katalitiese aktiwiteite van die ensieme 17β-hidroksi-steroïed-dehidrogenase tipe 2, tipe 3 en tipe 5 (17βHSD2, 17βHSD3, AKR1C3), asook 5α-reduktase tipe 1 en tipe 2 (SRD5A1, SRD5A2) ondersoek. Hierdie ensieme is betrokke in die produksie van androgene in die prostaat. Rooibos het die katalitiese aktiwiteit van 17βHSD3 en AKR1C3 in CHO-K1 en HEK293 selle beïnvloed en het vermindere omskakeling van androstenedioon (A4) en 11keto-androstenedioon (11KA4) na testosteroon (T) en 11-ketotestosteroon (11KT), afsonderlik, veroorsaak. Die katalitiese aktiwiteit van 17βHSD2 teenoor T, 11-hidroksie-testosteroon (11OHT) en 11KT was ook beïnvloed in die teenwoordigheid van rooibos in HEK293 selle. Die katalitiese aktiwiteit van SRD5A1 teenoor A4 en T is nie beïnvloed deur rooibos nie, alhoewel dit voorkom asof rooibos die omsettingstempo van T na dihidrotestosteroon (DHT) deur SRD5A2, getransfekteer in HEK293 selle, verminder het. Verdere ondersoeke is in normale prostaat epiteel selle, in die teenwoordigheid van rooibos uitgevoer. Rooibos het geen invloed op die katalitiese aktiwiteit van SRD5A teenoor A4 gehad nie, alhoewel vermindere omskakeling van T na DHT aangetoon kon word. Rooibos het ook die omskakeling van A4 na T in beide PNT2 en BPH-1 selle tot „n mate geïnhibeer. Die omskakeling van 11KA4 na 11KT was ook verminder in BPH-1, PC-3 en LNCaP selle. Die omskakeling van 11KA4 na 11KT was beduidend laer in PNT2 selle en kon die invloed van rooibos nie aangetoon word nie. Bykomende data toon dat rooibos ook die omskakeling van 5α-androstenedioon (5α-dione) na androsteroon (AST), gekataliseer deur 3α-hidroksi-dehidrogenase tipe 3 (AKR1C2), verminder, gesamentlik met die vermindere omskakeling van T na A4, deur 17βHSD2, in PNT2 selle. Hierdie studie het ook ondersoek ingestel, na die metabolisme van androgene in LNCaP selle. Vermindere A4 metabolisme is in die teenwoordigheid van rooibos asook in die teenwoordigheid van indometasien, „n bekende AKR1C3 inhibitor, gevind. Rooibos verminder dus die aktiwiteit van reduktiewe 17βHSD in LNCaP selle. Verandering in die metabolisme van T, DHT en AST in LNCaP selle, in die teenwoordigheid van rooibos, is ook gevind. Verdere ondersoek in LNCaP selle het gewys dat rooibos „n vermindering in die produksie van gekonjugeerde T, DHT en AST veroorsaak. Die studie het die invloed van rooibos op prostaat-spesifieke antigeen (PSA) ook ondersoek. Daar is vasgestel dat rooibos die vlakke van PSA verminder in die afwesigheid en teenwoordigheid van DHT in LNCaP selle. Hierdie resultaat dui op moontlike interaksie van rooibos met die androgeen (AR) of estrogeen-reseptor-β (ERβ), teenwoordig in LNCaP selle. Rooibos het die katalitiese aktiwiteit van ensieme, wat bydra tot androgeen produksie, geïnhibeer, asook die konjugasie van androgene. Op „n sellulêre vlak, het rooibos die vlakke van PSA-sekresie verminder, wat moontlike interaksie met die AR en ERβ aandui. Hierdie bevindings dui daarop dat rooibos wel n rol het om te speel in die modulasie van aktiewe androgene in die prostaat.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/96926
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