The biomechanical risk factors associated with preventing and managing iliotibial band syndrome in runners : a systematic review

Aderem, Jodi (2015-04)

Thesis (MScPhysio)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Introduction: Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS), an overuse injury, is the second most common running injury and the main cause of lateral knee pain in runners. Due to the increasing number of runners worldwide there has been an increase in its occurrence. Runners with ITBS typically experience symptoms just after heel strike at approximately 20°-30° of knee flexion (impingement zone) during the stance phase of running. A variety of intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors may be responsible for why some runners are more prone to developing symptoms during the impingement zone as opposed to others. Abnormalities in running biomechanics is an intrinsic risk factor which has been most extensively described in literature but little is known about its exact relationship to ITBS. Objectives: The purpose of this systematic review was to provide an up to date evidence synthesis of the biomechanical risk factors associated with ITBS. These risk factors may need to be considered in the prevention or management of ITBS in runners. A clinical algorithm is also presented. Methods: A systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted. An electronic search was performed in PubMed, PEDro, SPORTSDisc and Scopus of literature published up-until May 2014. Cross-sectional and cohort studies were eligible for inclusion if they evaluated the lower limb biomechanics of runners with ITBS or those who went onto developing it. All studies included in the review were methodologically appraised. Evidence was graded according to the level of evidence, consistency of evidence and the clinical impact. Data was described narratively using tables or narrative summaries where appropriate. A meta-analysis was conducted for biomechanical risk factors which were reported in at least two studies, provided that homogeneity in the outcomes and samples were present. Results: A total of 11 studies were included (1 prospective and 10 cross-sectional). Overall the methodological score of the studies was moderate. Increased peak hip adduction and knee internal rotation during the stance phase may predict the development of ITBS in female runners. These biomechanical risk factors may need to be screened for ITBS prevention, despite the evidence base being limited to a single study. Currently there is no conclusive evidence that any of the biomechanical parameters need to be considered when managing runners with ITBS. Stellenbosch University https://scholar.sun.ac.za iii Conclusion: Biomechanical differences may exist between runners with ITBS and those who may develop ITBS compared to healthy runners. Although a large variety of biomechanical risk factors were evaluated, the evidence base for screening or managing these risk factors for runners with ITBS is limited. This is due to a small evidence base, small clinical effect and heterogeneity between study outcomes and findings. Further prospective and cross-sectional research is required to ascertain if abnormalities in running biomechanics may be related to why runners develop ITBS or to ascertain which risk factors may be involved when managing these runners.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Inleiding: Iliotibiale-band-sindroom (ITBS), ’n besering vanweë oormatige gebruik, is die tweede algemeenste hardloopbesering en die hoofoorsaak van laterale kniepyn by hardlopers. Namate die getal hardlopers wêreldwyd toeneem, neem die voorkoms van hierdie toestand ook toe. Hardlopers met ITBS ervaar tipies simptome ná die hakslag met die knie ongeveer 20-30° gebuig (die wrywingsone of “impingement zone”) gedurende die staanfase van hardloop. Verskeie intrinsieke en ekstrinsieke risikofaktore kan ’n rol speel in waarom sommige hardlopers meer geneig is as ander om gedurende die wrywingsone simptome te ervaar. Abnormaliteite in hardloopbiomeganika is ’n intrinsieke risikofaktor wat reeds omvattend in die literatuur beskryf is. Tog is weinig bekend oor presies hoe dit met ITBS verband hou. Oogmerke: Die doel van hierdie stelselmatige ondersoek was om ’n sintese te bied van die jongste bewyse van die biomeganiese risikofaktore van ITBS. Hierdie risikofaktore kan dalk oorweeg word om ITBS by hardlopers te voorkom of te bestuur. ’n Kliniese algoritme word ook aangebied. Metodes: ’n Stelselmatige ondersoek is met behulp van meta-ontleding onderneem. PubMed, PEDro, SPORTSDisc en Scopus is elektronies deurgesoek vir literatuur wat tot en met Mei 2014 verskyn het. Deursnee en kohortstudies is ingesluit indien dit gehandel het oor die biomeganika in die onderste ledemate van hardlopers wat ITBS het of later ontwikkel het. Alle studies wat deel was van die ondersoek is metodologies geëvalueer. Bewyse is aan die hand van bewysvlak, bewyskonsekwentheid en kliniese impak beoordeel. Data is narratief beskryf met behulp van tabelle of narratiewe opsommings waar dit toepaslik was. ’n Meta-ontleding is onderneem waar biomeganiese risikofaktore in minstens twee studies aangemeld is, mits daar homogeniteit in die uitkomste sowel as die steekproewe was. Resultate: Altesaam 11 studies is ingesluit (een prospektief en tien deursnee). Die metodologiese telling van die studies was oorwegend gemiddeld. Verhoogde spitsheupadduksie en interne knierotasie gedurende die staanfase kan op die ontwikkeling van ITBS by vrouehardlopers dui. Hierdie biomeganiese risikofaktore kan dalk nagegaan word vir ITBS-voorkoming, al was die bewysbasis beperk tot ’n enkele studie. Daar is tans geen afdoende bewys dat enige van die biomeganiese parameters oorweeg behoort te word in die bestuur van langafstandatlete met ITBS nie. Gevolgtrekking: Daar bestaan dalk biomeganiese verskille tussen hardlopers wat ITBS het of kan ontwikkel en gesonde hardlopers. Hoewel ’n groot verskeidenheid biomeganiese risikofaktore beoordeel is, is die bewysbasis vir die toets of bestuur daarvan by atlete met ITBS beperk. Dít is vanweë die klein hoeveelheid bewyse, die klein kliniese impak, en heterogeniteit tussen studie-uitkomste en bevindinge. Verdere prospektiewe en deursneenavorsing word vereis om te bepaal of abnormaliteite in hardloopbiomeganika ’n rol kan speel in waarom langafstandhardlopers ITBS ontwikkel, of om vas te stel watter risikofaktore ter sprake kan wees in die bestuur van hierdie hardlopers.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/96803
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