Loop mediated isothermal amplification to detect respiratory syncytial virus in respiratory specimens

Hart, Dirk (2015-02-12)

Thesis (MScMedSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Background: Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the leading cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection in infants and children worldwide. Early diagnosis of RSV infection is associated with shorter periods of hospitalisation and decreased mortality. Current point of care (PoC) tests for RSV is less sensitive than molecular methods. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), is a novel method of nucleic acid detection which allows for rapid, robust amplification, and visual detection of infectious agents. Aim: The objective of this study was to develop a novel, rapid, and sensitive multiplex RSV RT-LAMP assay for PoC diagnosis of RSV A and B. Methods: Preparation of a quantitative RSV standard for assay optimisation was done using a rapid hypotonic burst recovery method of infective virus during sub-passaging, and a shell vial fluorescent focus assay for titration of culture-derived viral stock. We designed a single set of eight primers targeting the large polymerase gene of both RSV A and B, and developed a novel single-step multiplex RSV RT-LAMP assay, using an in-house reaction mix and the Rotor-Gene Q real-time thermocycler (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany). The metal ion indicator hydroxy naphtol blue (HNB) was added to the multiplex RSV RT-LAMP assay for visual detection of RSV. Results: The final optimised multiplex RSV RT-LAMP assay had an analytical detection sensitivity of <10 focus forming units (FFU) per reaction for both RSV A and B, with a mean time to positivity of 21.85 minutes (95% CI 19.2-24.5 minutes), compared to 90-120 minutes for conventional PCR. Evaluated against the Seeplex RV15 multiplex PCR (Seegene, Seoul, Korea) by testing 44 (22 RSV A/22 RSV B) nasopharyngeal specimens, the multiplex RSV RT-LAMP assay had a sensitivity of 100%, and a specificity of 100% when screened against nine common respiratory viruses. Visual detection of RSV using HNB as colorimetric reagent was equivalent to the analytical sensitivity (10 FFU/reaction) and specificity (100%) of the multiplex RSV RT-LAMP assay. Conclusion: Compared with conventional PCR, our novel single-step multiplex RSV RTLAMP assay had excellent sensitivity, specificity, and when combined with HNB dye could provide accurate visual diagnosis within 1 hour. We envisage that this multiplex RSV RTLAMP assay will be used for rapid and sensitive RSV detection at the PoC.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Agtergrond: Respiratoriese Syncytial Virus (RSV) is die hoof oorsaak van erge laer lugweginfeksie in babas en kinders wêreldwyd. Vroeë diagnose van RSV infeksie word geassosieer met korter periodes van hospitalisasie en verlaagde mortaliteit. Huidige punt van sorg (PoC) toetse vir RSV is minder sensitief as molekulêre metodes. Omgekeerde transkripsie lus-gemedieerde isotermiese amplifisering (RT-LAMP), is 'n nuwe metode van nukleïensuur opsporing wat voorsiening maak vir vinnige, doeltreffende amplifisering, en visuele bevestiging van aansteeklike agente. Doel: Die doel van hierdie studie was om 'n nuwe, vinnige en sensitiewe multipleks RSV RTLAMP toets te ontwikkel wat PoC diagnose van RSV A en B in staat stel. Metodes: Voorbereiding van 'n kwantitatiewe RSV standaard vir toets optimisering is gedoen met behulp van 'n hipotoniese sel-lise metode van infektiewe virus tydens sub-kultuur, en 'n “shell-vial” kultuur en fluorosensie fokus toets vir titrasie van kultuur-geproduseerde virus voorraad. Ons het 'n enkele stel van agt inleiers ontwerp wat gebaseer is op die groot polimerase geen van beide RSV A en B, en 'n nuwe enkel-stap multipleks RSV RT-LAMP toets ontwikkel, met gebruik van 'n in-huis reaksie mengsel en die Rotor-Gene Q “real-time” thermocycler (Qiagen, Hilden, Duitsland). Die metaalioon aanwyser hidroksi naphtol blou (HNB) is bygevoeg in die multipleks RSV RT-LAMP toets vir visuele bevestiging van RSV. Resultate: Die finale geoptimiseerde multipleks RSV RT-LAMP toets het 'n analitiese sensitiwiteit van <10 fokus vormende eenhede (FFU) per reaksie vir beide RSV A en B gehad, met 'n gemiddelde tyd tot positiwiteit van 21.85 minute (95% CI 19.2-24.5 minute) , in vergelyking met 90-120 minute vir konvensionele PCR. Geëvalueer teen die Seeplex RV15 multipleks PCR (Seegene, Seoul, Korea) deur 44 (22 RSV A/22 RSV B) nasofaringeale monsters te toets, het die multipleks RSV RT-LAMP toets 'n sensitiwiteit van 100% getoon, en 'n spesifisiteit van 100% wanneer getoets teen nege algemene respiratoriese virusse. Visuele bevestiging van RSV met gebruik van HNB as kolorimetriese reagens was gelykstaande aan die analitiese sensitiwiteit (10 FFU/reaksie) en spesifisiteit (100%) van die multipleks RSV RT-LAMP toets. Gevolgtrekking: In vergelyking met konvensionele PCR, het ons nuwe enkel-stap multipleks RSV RT-LAMP toets uitstekende sensitiwiteit, spesifisiteit, en wanneer dit gekombineer word met HNB kleurstof kon dit akkurate visuele diagnose voorsien binne 1 uur. Ons verwag dat hierdie multipleks RSV RT-LAMP toets gebruik sal word vir vinnige en sensitiewe RSV bevestiging by die PoC.

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