Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) pre-pupae as a protein source for broiler production

Uushona, Tulimo (2015-03)

Thesis (MScAgric)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to investigate the potential of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) pre-pupae meal (BSM) as a protein source in broiler chicken diets. The first part of the study determined the digestibility of black soldier fly pre-pupae meal in a trial where four treatment diets, i.e. 100% maize (control diet), BSM dried at 100 °C (BSM100), BSM dried at 65 °C (BSM65), and defatted BSM dried at 65 °C (DF-BSM) were fed to Cobb 500 broiler chicks, 43 days of age, for a period of three days. The chicks (n=64) allocated to the treatment groups were acclimatized to the treatment diets for a period of three days prior to the experimental feeding period. The chicks received a commercial diet, according to the guidelines of Cobb-Vantress, up to an age of 39 days. The DF-BSM diet was found to be more digestible than the BSM65 diet, and acceptable digestibility values (i.e. above 70%) were reported for all the treatment diets. The apparent metabolisable energy of the BSM65 diet was 16.52, with a crude protein coefficient of total intestinal tract digestibility (CTTD) of 86%, which is higher than that reported for soya bean meal. In the second part of the study, the inclusion of BSM65 in chicken diets and the effect on broiler production parameters; organ, gut and skeletal parameters, were investigated. Black soldier fly pre-pupae meal, dried at 65 °C (BSM), was included in broiler diets at levels of 0, 5, 10, and 15%, respectively and fed to 320 day-old Cobb 500 broiler chicks for a period of 35 days. For most of the production parameters studied, no significant differences were reported for average daily intake, live weight gain, feed conversion ratio and European protein efficacy factor. A significant effect was observed for average weekly feed intake and cumulative feed intake at day 18 of age. This part of the study indicated that BSM65 levels included at 15% sustained normal growth in birds used in the study, which indicated the viability of BSM to be used as a protein source in broiler diets. The findings also indicated that the inclusion of BSM in broiler diets did not influence organ weight, gizzard erosion score, tibia ash percentage, tibia breaking strength, tibia mineral content, small intestine pH, and histomorphology of the duodenal and jejenal regions. In the third part of the study, the inclusion of BSM65 in broiler diets on carcass characteristics and meat quality of broilers was investigated. Black soldier fly pre-pupae meal dried at 65 °C did not compromise the physical, sensory and chemical quality of the broiler meat. No significant effects were also found in terms of live slaughter weight, cold carcass weight and the commercial portions (i.e. breast, thigh, drumstick, wing and back). Overall, the study indicated that BSM, which is considered a non-traditional protein source, can be included in broiler diets at levels as high as 15%, without any adverse effect on normal broiler production, organ and skeletal parameters. The inclusion of BSM in broiler diets did not affect the quality of the meat nor compromised the eating quality of the meat produced, when compared to meat of broilers fed the control diet (commercial broiler diet).

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die doel van die studie was om die potensiaal van die Venstervleig (Hermetia illucens) pre-papie meel (SSM) as ʼn alternatiewe proteïenbron in braaikuiken dieëte te ondersoek. In die eerste deel van die studie is die verteerbaarheid van SSM bepaal deur vier verskillende diëte, d.i. 100% mielies (kontrole dieet), SSM gedroog by 100 °C (SSM100), SSM gedroog by 65 °C (SSM65) en ontvette SSM gedroog by 65 °C (DF-SSM), aan 43 dae oue Cobb 500 braaikuikens te voer vir 'n tydperk van drie dae. Die kuikens (n=64) is ewekansig aan die onderskeie behandelingsgroepe toegeken en is drie dae voor aanvang van die eksperimentele voerperiode aangepas. Die kuikens het 'n kommersiële dieet, geformuleer volgens die riglyne van Cobb-Vantress, tot 'n ouderdom van 39 dae, ontvang. Die verteerbaarheid van die DF-SSM was hoër as die van die SSM65 dieet. Alle verteerbaarhede was hoogs aanvaarbaar met waardes bo 70%. Die skynbare metaboliseerbare energiewaarde van die SSM65 dieet was 16.52 MJ/kg, met 'n koëffisiënt verteerbaarheid (CTTD) van 86%, wat hoër is as die waardes vir sojaboonmeel. In die tweede deel van die studie is die insluiting van SSM65 in braaikuiken diëte en die effek op braaikuikenproduksie parameters, orgaan-, derm- en skeletale parameters, ondersoek. Venstervlieg pre-papie meel, gedroog by 65 °C (SSM), is ingesluit in braaikuiken diëte teen vlakke van 0, 5, 10, en 15%, onderskeidelik en gevoer vir ʼn tydperk van 35 dae aan 320 dag-oud Cobb 500 braaikuikens. Geen betekenisvolle verskille is gevind vir gemiddelde daaglikse inname, lewende massatoename, voeromsetverhouding of die Europese produksie effektiwiteitsfaktor nie. 'n Betekenisvolle verskil is gevin vir gemiddelde weeklikse voerinname en kumulatiewe voerinname waargeneem by dag 18 van ouderdom. Hierdie deel van die studie het aangedui dat SSM ingesluit teen vlakke so hoog as 15%, nie die normale groei van die kuikens in die studie beïnvloed het nie, wat dui op die potensiaal van SSM om as 'n proteïenbron in braaikuiken diëte gebruik te word. Die bevindinge het ook aangedui dat die insluiting van SSM in braaikuiken diëte nie orgaanmassas, spiermaag erosie telling, tibia mineraal inhoud, tibia breekkrag, dunderm pH en histomorfologie van die duodenum en jejunum beïnvloed het nie. In die derde deel van die studie, is die insluiting van SSM65 in braaikuiken diëte op die karkas eienskappe en vleiskwaliteit parameters van braaikuikens ondersoek. Venstervlieg pre-papie meel, gedroog by 65 °C, het nie die fisiese-, sensoriese- en chemiese kwaliteitseienskappe van braaikuiken vleis beïnvloed nie. Geen betekenisvolle verskille is gevind vir slaggewig, koue karkasgewig of die massas van die onderskeie handelsnitte (d.i. bors, dy, boudjie, vlerk en rug) nie. Die algehele bevinding van die studie was dat SSM65, wat beskou word as 'n nie-tradisionele bron van proteïen, in braaikuiken diëte teen vlakke van so hoog as 15% ingesluit kan word, sonder enige nadelige invloed op die normale braaikuikenproduksie parameters, orgaan- en skeletparameters of vleiskwaliteit nie.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/96631
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