Barriers in implementing total quality management in Kraaifontein public health care facility in the Western Cape

Skiti, Vuyi (2009-12)

Thesis (MBA (Business Management))--University of Stellenbosch, 2009.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Purpose – The health care industry is faced with numerous challenges ranging from rising medical costs, poor state of hospitals, deteriorating health care services and an increasing number of hospital deaths. All these disparities present tremendous challenges for the health care managers in charge of the health care services. As a result, they are forced to try new management methods that will assist their organizations to remain cost effective and efficient. Total Quality Management (TQM) constitutes an appropriate response to these challenges and it has become the strategy of choice to improve organization’s performance and patient satisfaction. However, in practice the implementation of TQM is often unsuccessful. Certain barriers have been identified which prevent the successful implementation of TQM in other industries as well as in the health care industry. The main aim of this research is to investigate the barriers to the successful implementation of Total Quality Management in Kraaifontein health care service organization in the Western Cape Province, 2008. Design/methodology/approach – The study employed a quasi-qualitative and quantitative case study. For the quantitative section a questionnaire with a 5–point Likert style scale was used to quantify the response (strongly disagree=1; strongly agree=5). For the qualitative section a focus group discussion was conducted to verify the results obtained from the questionnaire which addressed the challenges of TQM implementation. The statistical population of this research consisted of all health care workers working the pharmacy department who were involved in the implementation of TQM in their organization. Data was analyzed using appropriate statistical procedures. The mean score of each of the dimensions was used as a representative performance indicator and the coefficient of variation (CV) was used as a general measure of standardized skewness on the performance of each dimension. A high means score indicated desired outcomes while low scores indicated poor outcomes. Findings – Major barriers that were encountered during the implementation of TQM in this case study included the lack of top management active involvement and full commitment in the initiative, rigid organizational structure, culture towards quality changes that inhibited communication between management and employees which in turn hindered employee empowerment. Other obstacles that were encountered were lack of continuous improvement processes and initiative, improper evaluation, the lack of a recognition and reward system for team work, poor collection and analysis of data that resulted in difficulty to convert this data into meaningful information to improve quality. The absence of an integrated performance measurement system also exhibited a problem as employees were not aware what was being assessed during performance appraisals. Lack of evidence based decision making, poor communication and inflexible organizational structure and culture were also viewed as barriers. Research limitations/implications – Although conducted in Kraaifontein health care facility, it is expected that the results of the study may be relevant on a broader scale to other health care departments and facilities. The results could assist the health care managers to develop a plan that addresses the barriers and challenges faced during the implementation of TQM, yielding fruitful results which allow TQM to be implemented easily, effectively, efficiently and successfully in health care facilities.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Doel – Die gesondheidsorg sektor het vele uitdagings wat wissel van stygende mediese kostes, lae standaarde in hospitale, die agteruitgang van gesondheidsorg dienste, en die toename in sterftes in hospitale. Hierdie en ander probleme stel groot uitdagings aan diegene verantwoordelik vir die lewering van gesondheidsorg, met die gevolg dat diesulkes nuwe bestuursmetodes moet vind om te verseker dat hulle organisasies steeds koste-effektief en doeltreffend funksioneer. Totale Gehalte Bestuur (TGB) is ‘n geskikte en toepaslike alternatief om genoemde probleme aan te spreek, en word toenemend as oplossing gesien om organisasies se dienslewering te verbeter, en pasiënt-tevredenheid te verseker. Die implementering van TGB blyk egter nie altyd suksesvol te wees nie. Daar is spesifieke struikelblokke geidentifiseer wat as redes aangevoer word vir die onsuksesvolle implementering van TGB in verskeie sektore, insluitend die van gesondheidsorg. Die hoof doel van hierdie navorsing was om die struikelblokke te ondersoek wat verhoed dat TGB suskesvol toegepas word in Kraaifontein gesondheidsdienste in die Weskaap, 2008. Ontwerp/Metode/Benadering – Die studie was ‘n kwasi kwalitatiewe en kwantitatiewe gevallestudie; vir die kwantitatiewe komponent is ‘n 5 punt Likert tipe skaal gebruik om die response (verskil beslis = 1; stem beslis saam = 5) te kwantifiseer. Die kwalitatiewe komponent het ‘n fokusgroep bespreking behels, waartydends die resultate van die vraelys geverifiëer is, wat die uitdagings van die implementering van TGB uitgewys het. Die statistiese populasie vir hierdie navorsing was al die gesondheidsorg werknemers in diens van die aptekers-departement, wat betrokke was in die implemetering van TGB in hulle organisasie. Die data is geanaliseer met toepaslike statistiese metodes. Die gemiddelde telling van elkeen van die dimensies was gebruik as ‘n verteenwoordigende aanduiding van prestasie, en die koëfisiënt van veranderlikheid was gebruik as ‘n algemene maatstaf van die gestandardiseerde skeefheid soos gemeet op elkeen van die dimensies. ‘n Hoë gemiddelde telling was ‘n aanduiding van die beoogde uitkomste, en lae tellings aanduidend van swak uitkomste. Bevindinge – Belangrike uitdagings wat ondervind is tydens die implementering van die TGB in hierdie gevallestudie sluit in, die gebrek aan aktiewe betrokkenheid en toewyding van die topbestuur vir hierdie inisiatief, rigiede organisatoriese strukture, die kultuur teenoor gehalte veranderinge wat kommunikasie tussen bestuur en werknemers belemmer, wat op sy beurt werknemer-bemagtiging verhoed. Ander struikelblokke wat geidentifiseer is, was ‘n afwesigheid van voortdurende verbeteringsprosesse en inisiatief, swak evaluering, ‘n gebrek aan ‘n sisteem vir erkenning en vergoeding vir spanwerk, swak data insameling en ontleding, wat tot probleme gelei het om die data in betekenisvolle inligting te verwerk wat kon lei tot ‘n verbetering in gehalte. Die afwesigheid van ‘n geintegreerde prestasie-beoordeling sisteem is ook as probleem geidentifiseer omdat werknemers nie ingelig was oor wat die prestasie-beoordelings behels nie. Die gebrek aan navorsingsgesteunde besluitneming, swak kommunikasie, en onbuigsame organisatoriese strukture en kultuur, was ook gesien as struikelblokke. Navorsing-beperkinge/implikasies – Alhoewel die studie in Kraaifontein gesondheidsorgfasiliteit gedoen is, word dit aanvaar dat die bevindinge van hierdie studie ook van toepassing is op ander gesondheidsorg departmente en fasiliteite. Die resultate kan gesondheidsorgbestuurders help om die uitdagings en struikelblokke te identifiseer in die implementering van TGB. Hierdie identifikasie kan lei tot ’n meer effektiewe en suksesvolle implementering van TGB in gesondheidsorgfasiliteite.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/964
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