Illegitimate tasks, personal resources and job resources as antecedents of job crafting

Abrahams, Zerelda (2014-12)

Thesis (MCom)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In the modern world of work, there has been growing concern regarding the adequacy of traditional job redesign approaches in serving the changing nature of work. It has specifically been argued by Frese and Fay (2001) that in the modern world of work, jobs require a higher degree of initiative due to factors such as global competition, faster rate of innovation, new production concepts, and changes in the job concept. The modern world of work poses a number of challenges which include increased levels of initiative by employees in order to develop their knowledge and skills in order to remain ‘current’, creative ideas, and an increased need for employees to make more and more decisions on their own. In order to survive in today’s challenging market place, employees thus should show high levels of proactivity and initiative. Job crafting is the process by which individuals make physical and cognitive changes to the task or relational boundaries of their work (Wrzesniewski & Dutton, 2001). It is proactive behaviour requiring adaptation to challenges and constraints presented by the working environment. It thus would be useful to be aware of the most important factors that contribute to the occurrence of such proactive behaviours. The objective of this research study therefore was to test whether salient job and personal resources, and job demands as depicted by the Job Demands-Resources model account for the variance in job crafting for a sample of employees working within the financial services industry. A literature review was conducted and hypotheses were formulated, and tested by means of an ex post facto correlation design. Data was collected from a sample of 236 employees employed by a company within the financial services industry. A self-administered web-based survey was used for the purpose of collecting the data and participation in the study was voluntary. The data collected was strictly confidential and anonymous. A number of separate measurement instruments to measure the specific latent variables were carefully selected for inclusion in the survey based on their reliability and validity. The research findings specifically illustrate that employees who receive feedback on their performance as well as those who are engaged in their jobs, are more likely to craft their jobs. The results also show that engagement mediates the relationship between autonomy and job crafting, as well as the relationship between feedback and job crafting (the latter being mediated only partially by engagement). Finally, it was found that proactive personality was positively related to job crafting. The research findings therefore illustrate the importance of specific job- and personal resources in fostering job crafting behaviours. The results, together with the managerial implications and practical interventions suggested, provide South African managers and industrial psychologists with valuable insight into managing and encouraging job crafting within the workplace. This research study commenced only once ethical clearance was received from the Research Ethics Committee of Stellenbosch University.

AFRIKAANS OPSOMMING: In die moderne wêreld van werk is daar toenemende kommer oor die geskiktheid van die tradisionele herontwerp van werk en hoe dit gepaard gaan met die veranderende aard van werk. Frese en Fay (2001) het spesifiek aangedui dat in die moderne wêreld van werk, 'n hoër mate van inisiatief vereis word as gevolg van faktore soos wêreldwye mededinging, vinniger tempo van innovering, nuwe produksie konsepte, en veranderinge in die konsep van werk. Die moderne wêreld van werk verg baie meer van individue, wat onder andere insluit hoër vlakke van inisiatief deur werknemers om hul kennis en vaardighede te ontwikkel om sodoende op datum te bly met tegnologiese veranderinge, kreatiewe idees, en 'n verhoogde behoefte vir werknemers om meer en meer besluite op hul eie te neem. Om dus in vandag se uitdagende wereld van werk te oorleef, word dit van werknemers verwag om hoë vlakke van pro-aktiwiteit en inisiatief te toon. ‘Job crafting’ is die proses waardeur individue fisiese en kognitiewe veranderinge in hul werks take en -verhoudinge aanbring (Wrzesniewski & Dutton, 2001). Dit is pro-aktiewe gedrag wat werknemers help om aan te pas by die uitdagings wat deur die moderne werksomgewing daargestel word. Dit sal dus voordelig wees om bewus te wees van die belangrikste faktore wat bydra tot hierdie pro-aktiewe gedrag in die werksplek. Die doel van hierdie navorsing was dus om te toets of belangrike werks- en persoonlike hulpbronne, en werks-vereistes soos deur die ‘Job Demands-Resources’ model voorgestel, ‘n waardevolle verduideliking is vir verskillende vlakke van ‘job crafting’ vir 'n groep in die finansiele bedryf. 'n Literatuuroorsig is uitgevoer en hipoteses geformuleer wat deur middel van 'n ex post facto-korrelasie-ontwerp getoets is. Data is ingesamel vanuit 'n streekproef van 236 werknemers van 'n maatskappy in die finansiële bedryf. 'n Self-toegepaste web-gebaseerde vraelys is vir die versameling van data gebruik en deelname aan die studie was vrywillig. Die dataversameling was streng vertroulik and anoniem. 'n Aantal afsonderlike metingsinstrumente om die spesifieke latente veranderlikes te meet, is noukeurig op grond van geldigheid en betroubaarheid gekies en ingesluit in die opname ingesluit. Die navorsings resultate illustreer dat wanneer werknemers terugvoering ontvang oor hul prestasie sowel as diegene wat betrokke is in hul werk, meer geneig is om hul werk te ‘craft’. Die resultate toon ook dat betrokkenheid die verhouding tussen outonomie en ‘job crafting’ bemiddel, sowel as die verhouding tussen terugvoering en job crafting (laasgenoemde word net gedeeltelik deur betrokkenheid bemiddel). Ten slotte, is daar gevind dat ‘n pro-aktiewe persoonlikheid n positiewe verwantskap met ‘job crafting’ het. Die navorsing illustreer dus die belangrikheid van spesifieke werks- en persoonlike hulpbronne in die bevordering van ‘job crafting’. Die resultate, tesame met die bestuurs-implikasies en praktiese ingrypings wat voorgestel word, bied Suid-Afrikaanse bestuurders en bedryfsielkundiges met waardevolle insigte in die bestuur en aanmoediging van ‘job crafting’ binne die werkplek. Hierdie navorsingstudie was voortgesit toe etiese klaring ontvang is van die Etiekkomitee van die Universiteit van Stellenbosch.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/96093
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