Pyramiding of rust resistance genes in wheat utilizing male sterility mediated marker-assisted recurrent selection

Springfield, Lezaan Sevone (2014-12)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Wheat production is globally affected by several different wheat rust diseases. The rust diseases can effectively be controlled by the deployment of multiple resistance genes that confer durable resistance. One of the most effective strategies to incorporate resistance genes is by the implementation of recurrent mass selection as it maximizes opportunities for gene pyramiding. The implementation of a recurrent mass selection program in wheat can effectively be enhanced with the use of genetic male sterility and the incorporation of maker assisted-selection (MAS). The aim of the study was to pyramid wheat rust resistance genes in wheat lines by utilizing a male sterile mediated marker-assisted recurrent selection breeding (MS-MARS) scheme. An existing segregating MS-MARS base population and resistance donor lines carrying genes of interest (Sr26, Sr35 and Sr45) were used as female and male crossing parents. Potential markers for the genes of interest were first identified and validated on the male population. PCR based markers tested for Sr26 and Sr45 easily distinguished between resistant and non-resistant plants in the study, while markers tested for the detection of Sr35 and Sr45 in most instances failed to do so. The identified Sr26 marker (Sr26#43) was successfully added to the SU-PBL’s standardized marker set in a multiplex reaction. The standardized marker set and the co-dominant PCR marker for Sr45 were used to screen male and female populations before and after cross-pollination. Several wheat rust resistance genes were present in various frequencies in both male and female populations prior to the first crossing cycle, except Sr26 and Sr45. Increases in gene frequencies and combinations were obtained after the first crossing cycle, highlighting the effectiveness of the MS-MARS breeding strategy to improve gene frequencies of desirable genes. Two MS-MARS crossing cycles were successfully completed and large numbers of hybrid seeds were produced in a short period of time by selecting male sterile plants based on distinct characteristics induced by the dominant male sterility gene. Future studies will include the wide deployment of Sr26 and Sr45 in the MS-MARS breeding program as markers are now available and can be included in the SU-PBL’s standardized marker set for the effective detection of these genes, the development of gene-specific markers for Sr35 to ascertain the presence of the gene in the MS-MARS population and the specific selection of male sterile plants with wide open glumes to maximize outcrossing rates.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Koring produksie word wêreldwyd aansienlik deur koringroes siektes geaffekteer. Die siektes kan doeltreffend beheer word deur die ontplooing van veelvuldige weerstandsgene, wat langdurige weerstand tot gevolg het. Een van die mees doeltreffendste strategieë om weerstandsgene in n koring plant te inkorporeer is deur die implementering van herhalende massa seleksie (HMS), siende dat dit geleenthede vir geen stapeling maksimaliseer. Die implementering van 'n HMS program in koring kan effektief aangewend word met behulp van genetiese manlike steriliteit en merker bemiddelde seleksie (MBS). Die doelwit van hierdie studie was om veelvuldige koringroes weerstandsgene in koring lyne te stapel met behulp van die manlik steriliteits merker bemiddelde herhalende seleksie (MS-MBHS)-telingsskema. ‘n Gevestigde segregerende MS-MARS basis populasie en donor lyne, wat die gene (Sr26, Sr35 en Sr45) van belang dra, was onderskeidelik as vroulike en manlike kruisingsouers gebruik. Potensiële molekulêre merkers vir die gene van belang was eers geidentifiseer in literatuur en op die donor lyne getoets, voordat dit vir die opsporing van die gene in die nageslag gebruik was. Polimerase ketting reaksie (PKR)-gebaseerde merkers wat getoets was vir Sr26 en Sr45, kon maklik tussen weerstand en nie-weerstandbiedende plante in die studie onderskei, terwyl ander merkers vir die opsporing van Sr35 en Sr45 nie so doeltreffend was nie. Die geidentifiseerde Sr26 merker was suksesvol bygevoeg tot die SU-PBL se gestandardiseerde merkerpaneel, in ‘n multipleks reaksie. Die gestandardiseerde merkerpaneel en die ko-dominante PKR merker vir Sr45 was gebruik om die manlike en vroulike populasie te analiseer vir die teenwoordigheid van verskeie weerstandsgene voor en na kruisbestuiwing. Merker analise het die teenwoordigheid van verskeie koringroes weerstandsgene in verskillende frekwensies in beide die manlike en vroulike populasie voor die eerste kruising siklus aangedui. Sr26 en Sr45 was egter afwesig in beide populasies. ‘n Toename in geen frekwensies en kombinasies was waargeneem na die eerste kruising siklus. Dit het gevolglik die doeltreffendheid van die MS-MARS teling strategie beklemtoon. Twee herhalende kruising siklusse was suksesvol voltooi en groot hoeveelhede bastersaad was verkry vanaf steriele plante wat geselekteer was op grond van unieke eienskappe wat hulle vertoon as gevolg van die manlike steriliteits geen. Toekomstige studies sluit in, die groot skaalse gebruik van Sr26 en Sr45 in die MS-MARS teelprogram aangesien merkers nou beskikbaar is en gebruik kan word in die MS-MARS teelprogram vir die doeltreffende opsporing van hierdie gene, die ontwikkeling van ‘n geen-spesifieke merker vir Sr35 om die teenwoordigheid van die geen in die MS-MARS populasie vas te stel, en die selektering van manlike steriele plante met wyd oop kaffies om kruisbestuiwing te verhoog.

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