Nutrient intake, gastrointestinal microbiota and the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum 299V in irritable bowel syndrome patients

Stevenson, Cheryl (2014-12)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal (GI) disorder. GI symptoms and impaired quality of life affect between 10-20% of all adults, corresponding to about 25-50% of all patients who visit a gastroenterologist’s clinic. In recent years, several novel mechanisms of IBS that likely relate to previously established theories have been identified. Inflammation, postinfectious low-grade inflammation, immunological and genetic predisposition along with altered microbiota are critical in IBS development, while several dietary factors may also play a role in this syndrome. However, none of these factors accounts for the full repertoire of IBS symptoms, and the pathophysiology of this condition is not fully understood. The overarching aim of this study was to investigate the nutrient intakes, GI microbiota and the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum (L.plantarum) 299v in IBS patients. Sub-aims: 1) Update healthcare professionals on current probiotic information and provide an overview of probiotic treatment approaches, with special emphasis on IBS, 2) conduct a well designed randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial (RCT) with L. plantarum 299v as part of an intervention and establish whether a course of probiotics may alleviate undesirable symptoms of IBS and improve quality of life, 3) assess nutrient intake in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) compared to dietary recommendations, 4) validate and assess the reproducibility of food records and 5) identify possible nutrient risk components for establishing GI microbiota involved in IBS and as part of an intervention, determine whether a course of probiotics may alter stool microbiota. Results: 1) A review article published by the author provides an overview of current probiotic treatment options to health care professionals and indicates certain probiotics are a promising therapeutic treatment option for management of IBS symtpoms, 2) the effects of the single strain probiotic, L. plantarum 299v, supplementation was evaluated in a RCT. Compared to placebo, the probiotic supplementation showed no significant reduction in GI symptom severity scores, particularly abdominal pain relief. Quality of life was also not improved in the treatment versus control group. Both the treatment and placebo groups improved significantly over the trial period, indicating a large placebo effect, 3) nutrient intakes of the IBS patients compared to current dietary reference recommendations indicates that this group of patients are at risk for nutrient inadequacies in key macro and micronutrients, 4) the validity and reliability of the dietary data showed good reliability but poor validity as measured by plasma fatty acids and 5) the GI microbiota composition in the phenotypically different diarrhoea-predominant IBS (D-IBS) vs. constipation-predominant IBS (C-IBS) showed that D-IBS patients had significantly lower counts of Lactobacillus plantarum compared to C-IBS patients. The probiotic had no significant effects on the GI microbiota as measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). It was found that nutrient intakes had a significant impact on the microbiota. Lower fibre intakes were associated with higher Bacteroides spp., lower Bifidobacteria bifidum and Lactobacillus plantarum counts in both IBS groups. Conclusion: Taken together, L.plantarum 299v did not alleviate the GI symptoms of IBS, nor was it associated with significant changes in the GI microbiota. IBS patients may be at risk of key nutrient inadequacies. The influence of nutrient intakes on the GI microbiota provides an attractive explanation as a potential pathophysiological factor for IBS.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Agtergrond: Prikkelbare derm-sindroom (PDS) is ‘n algemene gastro-intestinale (GI) stoornis. GI simptome affekteer die lewenskwaliteit van 10-20% van alle volwassenes. Dit stem ooreen met ongeveer 25-50% van alle pasiënte wat ‘n gastroënteroloog konsulteer. Verskeie oorspronklike meganismes vir die ontwikkeling van PDS is onlangs identifiseer. Inflammasie, post-infektiewe lae-graadse inflammasie, immunologiese en genetiese vatbaarheid tesame met veranderde mikrobiota is krities vir die ontwikkeling van PDS. Sekere dieetfaktore mag ook bydraend wees tot hierdie sindroom. Geen van hierdie faktore is egter verantwoordelik vir die volle spektrum van PDS simptome nie en die patofisiologie van die toestand word ook nog nie ten volle verstaan nie. Die oorkoepelende doel van hierdie studie is om nutriëntinname, GI mikrobiota en die uitwerking van L.plantarum 299v in PDS pasiënte bepaal. Sub-doelwitte: 1) Om gesondheidswerkers in te lig aangaande die nuutste inligting oor probiotika en om ‘n oorsig van probiotika behandelingsopsies te verskaf, met spesiale klem op PDS, 2) om ‘n goed beplande ewekansige, dubbel-blinde, plasebo-beheerde kliniese studie met L.plantarum 299v as deel van die intervensie uit te voer om sodoende te bepaal of ‘n kursus probiotika ongewensde simptome van PDS kan verbeter en lewenskwaliteit sodoende verhoog, 3) om nutriëntinname in pasiënte met PDS te bepaal vergeleke met dieet aanbevelings, 4) om die geldigheid en herhaalbaarheid van voedselrekords te bepaal en 5) om moontlike nutriënt risikokomponente vir die ontwikkeling van GI mikrobiota betrokke in PDS te identifiseer en om as deel van ‘n intervensie te bepaal of ‘n kursus probiotika stoelgang mikrobiota patrone verander. Resultate: 1) ‘n Oorsigartikel gepubliseer deur die kandidaat dui probiotika aan as ‘n belowende terapeutiese opsie in die behandeling van PDS simptome, 2) die effek van ‘n enkelstam probiotikum, L.plantarum 299v, is evalueer deur ‘n ewekansige, dubbel-blinde, plasebo-beheerde kliniese studie. Vergeleke met die plasebo, het probiotiese aanvulling geen betekenisvolle vermindering in die GI simptome in PDS pasiënte tot gevolg gehad nie. Lewenskwaliteit het ook nie verbeter in die behandelde versus die kontrole groep nie. Beide die behandelde en plasebo groepe het aansienlik verbeter oor die studietydperk, wat ‘n groot plasebo effek aandui, 3) nutriëntinname van die PDS groep vergeleke met huidige dieetaanbevelings, dui daarop dat hierdie groep pasiënte ‘n risiko het vir die ontwikkeling van kern nutriënttekorte (makro- en mikronutriënte), 4) die geldigheid en betroubaarheid van die dieetdata dui op goeie betroubaarheid, maar swak geldigheid soos bepaal deur plasma vetsure en 5) die dermkanaal mikrobiotiese samestelling in die verskillende fenotipes, diarree-oorheersende PDS (D-PDS) vs. konstipasie-oorheersende PDS (K-PDS) dui daarop dat D-PDS pasiënte aansienlike minder Lactobacillus plantarum gehad het vergeleke met K-PDS pasiënte. Die probiotikum het geen beduidende uitwerking op die oorheersende mikrobiota gehad nie, soos gemeet deur kwantitatiewe polimerase kettingreaksie (kPKR). Daar is gevind dat dieet ‘n beduidende impak op die mikrobiota gehad het. Daar is ‘n verband tussen laer vesel inname en hoёr Bacteroides spp. en laer Bifidobacteria bididum en Lactobacillus plantarum tellings gevind in beide PDS groepe. Gevolgtrekking: Die L.plantarum 299v enkelstam probiotikum het nie die gastrointestinale simptome van PDS pasiënte verlig nie en daar is ook geen beduidende veranderinge in die mikrobiota gevind nie. PDS pasiënte mag ‘n verhoogde risiko toon vir kern nutriënttekorte. Die invloed van nutriëntinname op GI mikrobiota verskaf ‘n belowende verduideliking as ‘n potensiële patofisiologiese faktor in PDS.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/96018
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