Securitisation of HIV and AIDS in Southern African policy processes : an investigation of Botswana, South Africa and Swaziland, 2000-2008

Moffat, Craig Vincent (2014-12)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study aims to understand the processes and factors that explain the framing of HIV and AIDS policy in Botswana, South Africa and Swaziland. Africa remains the global epicentre of the HIV and AIDS epidemic with Southern Africa remaining the most affected region in the world. The investigation centres on the HIV and AIDS policymaking discourses and dynamics leading to the securitisation of the epidemic in the three countries. The central focus of the study covers the timeframe of the leadership of President Mogae in Botswana, President Mbeki in South Africa and King Mswati III in Swaziland. This period is important as it characterises the HIV and AIDS epidemic being elevated onto the political agenda of the respective countries. This dissertation relies on two strands of theoretical literature namely, public policy theory and securitisation theory to help explain the framing of policy decision-making that leads to the process of securitisation of the HIV and AIDS epidemic in the three countries. This study is a multiple case study within the qualitative research paradigm. This research is based on three case studies: Botswana, South Africa and Swaziland. As far as data collection is concerned, this study drew on primary sources of data, which consisted of documents obtained during the fieldwork from various stakeholders such as such as official government documents, as well as official documents from international and domestic HIV and AIDS organisations. Twenty semi-structured interviews were also conducted between 2007 and 2008 with various stakeholders including government officials, representatives of domestic and international HIV and AIDS organisations operating in the respective countries, researchers from think tanks and academics. In addition, eleven exploratory interviews were also conducted as part of the fieldwork process. Furthermore this study also relied on various secondary sources of data such as scholarly articles and books, official documents and legislation and newspaper articles. The preliminary results collected and analysed in this study suggest that Botswana, South Africa and Swaziland have all demonstrated a degree of formal commitment to adopting international guidelines to combat the epidemic. The thesis shows that while all three countries may share the burden of the epidemic, each presents a different political, social and cultural identity with different institutional architects (both foreign and domestic) that determined the nature of the response policy to the epidemic. The study shows that each of the three case studies presents an example of differing degrees of securitisation attempts: i) Botswana - successful securitisation; ii) South Africa - unsuccessful securitisation; and iii) Swaziland - partial securitisation because different actors and audiences are positioned at varying points along a spectrum of securitisation. This degree of securitisation can be linked to the acceptance of international ideas and the prevailing global discourse regarding the HIV and AIDS epidemic and the openness to forming collaborative agreements between state and non-state actors in each of the three countries.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie studie poog om ’n begrip te ontwikkel van die prosesse en faktore wat verklaar hoe beleid rondom MIV en VIGS in Botswana, Suid-Afrika en Swaziland geraam word. Die Afrikavasteland is nog steeds die wêreld se MIV en VIGS-episentrum en die Suider-Afrika-streek loop die mees gebuk onder die epidemie. Die ontleding sentreer op die MIV en VIGS beleidsdiskoerse en die dinamieke wat aanleiding gee tot die beveiliging van die epidemie in die drie lande. Die kollig val op die tyd toe President Mogae van Botswana, President Mbeki van Suid-Afrika en Koning Mswati III van Swaziland aan bewind was. Hierdie periode is van belang omdat dit die tyd was toe MIV en VIGS op die drie lande se politieke agendas geplaas is. Die proefskrif gebruik literatuur uit twee teoretiese velde, naamlik openbare beleidsteorie en sekuriteitsteorie, om te verklaar hoe daar op bepaalde beleide besluit word, hoe dit geraam word, en die proses waarvolgens MIV en VIGS gevolglik in die drie lande beveilig word. Die studie is ’n meervuldige gevallestudie binne die kwalitatiewe navorsingsparadigma. Die navorsing is op drie gevallestudies gebaseer, te wete Botswana, Suid-Afrika en Swaziland. Ten opsigte van data-insameling, het die studie van primêre databronne gebruik gemaak bestaande uit bewysstukke wat van verskeie belangegroepe verkry is. Hierdie stukke beslaan amptelike regeringsdokumente en amptelike dokumentasie van internasionale sowel as nasionale MIV en VIGS-organisasies. Daar is ook met verskeie belangegroepe onderhoude gevoer. Die belangegroepe het bestaan uit regeringsamptenare, die verteenwoordigers van nasionale en internasionale MIV en VIGS-organisasies betrokke in die drie lande, akademici, en kundiges by navorsingsinstansies. Twintig semi-gestruktureerde onderhoude is in 2007 en 2008 gevoer. Boonop is daar as deel van die empiriese navorsing 11 verkenningsonderhoude gevoer. Die studie het ook van verskeie sekondêre databronne soos vakwetenskaplike artikels en boeke, amptelike dokumentasie, wetaktes en koerantartikels gebruik gemaak. Die voorlopige bevindinge dui dat Botswana, Suid-Afrika en Swaziland elkeen hulself tot ’n mate formeel tot internasionale riglyne verbind het om die epidemie te beveg. Die proefskrif bewys dat ofskoon al drie lande swaar aan die las van die epidemie dra, daar by elkeen verskillende politieke, maatskaplike en kulturele identiteite, asook institusionele argitekte (plaaslik sowel as buitelands) bestaan wat die aard van die beleidsrespons bepaal het. Die studie dui verskillende grade van beveiliging by elkeen van die gevallestudies: i) Botswana – suksesvolle beveiliging; ii) Suid-Afrika – onsuksesvolle beveiliging; en iii) Swaziland – gedeeltelike beveiliging. Hierdie grade van beveiliging kan verklaar word aan die hand van die mate waartoe daar by elkeen van die lande aanvaarding was van internasionale denke en diskoers oor die MIV en VIGS-epidemie en of samewerking tussen staats- en nie-staatsakteurs bewerkstellig is.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/95864
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