The antimicrobial interactions of Agathosma crenulata, Dodonaea viscosa and Eucalyptus globulus combination and their chemical profiling

Zonyane, Samkele (2013-12)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In traditional medicine, there is a long-standing culture of combining herbal drugs to increase the therapeutic efficacy. The improved medical action is thought to be due to synergistic interactions between different plant bioactive components. The aim of this study was to test the pharmacological interactions in a medicinal plant combination which consisted of Agathosma crenulata, Dodonaea viscosa and Eucalyptus globulus. The rationale for the analysis of this particular mixture is that it had noteworthy antibacterial activity and exhibited the highest activity out of seven medicinal plant mixtures previously investigated. Using chromatographic analysis, the phytochemistry of the plants was also assessed. The chloroform: methanol (1:1; v/v) extracts or hydo-distilled essential oils (A. crenulata and E. globulus) were screened individually and in combinations (double and triple plant combination) for activity against five respiratory pathogens using a microdilution assay. The antimicrobial interactions in combinations were assessed with the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) and the isobolograms. The organic extracts generally showed the highest antimicrobial activity with E. globulus having the highest activity with MIC values below 1 mg ml-1 representing noteworthy activity. The overall activity of the aqueous extracts was poor. The essential oil activity of E. globulus was mostly noteworthy (0.5 to 2 mg ml-1) while A. crenulata essential oil displayed moderate activity (1 to 4 mg ml-1). The ΣFIC values for double combinations (1:1) of A. crenulata with D. viscosa, A. crenulata with E. globulus and D. viscosa with E. globulus were calculated from the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) data and the interactions were classified as synergistic, additive, indifferent and antagonistic. The highest synergistic interactions observed were for a 1:1 combination of A. crenulata with E. globulus against K. pneumoniae, S. aureus and B. subtilis with ΣFIC values of 0.07. There was only one incident of antagonism noted in the study for D. viscosa with E. globulus (1:1) against C. neoformans with ΣFIC value of 4.25. The double combinations against selective pathogens (K. pneumoniae, S. aureus and E. coli) were further analysed for interactions using isobolograms. Mostly, the antimicrobial interactions as presented by the isobolograms were congruent with FIC results which further validated the occurrence of relevant antimicrobial interactions in those combinations. The ΣFIC values for triple combinations (1:1:1) revealed mostly synergistic interactions. When the triple combinations were analysed further against certain pathogens based on the predictions of the Design of Experiments software program (MODDE 9.1®), the MIC values remained the same despite the different combinations that were tested Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used for a quick chemical fingerprinting of the plant extracts. This was followed by a bio-autographic assay. The chemical profiles of the organic extracts and essential oils from two of the study aromatic plants (A. crenulata and E. globulus) were further analysed with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) respectively. For combined plant extracts, a multivariate data analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) was used to determine the relationship of the chemical make-up of combinations with that of individual plant extracts. According to the TLC analysis, E. globulus extracts had more compounds than the other two plants in the study. For the bio-autographic assay, E. globulus and combinations that included this plant showed greater inhibition zones than A. crenulata and D. viscosa. For the LC-MS analysis, PCA and HCA showed a close relationship between A. crenulata with D. viscosa, D. viscosa with E. globulus and the triple combination. Twenty one components were identified in the essential oil of A. crenulata representing 88.83% of the total oil composition. The oil was dominated by oxygen-containing monoterpenes (46.25%). In the essential oil of E. globulus, twenty six compounds were identified making up to 95.62% of the oil composition. Oxygen-containing monoterpenes (32.98%) also dominated the E. globulus essential oil. There was no great variation in essential oil metabolites of the individual plants and their combination as shown by both PCA and HCA. The enhanced in vitro antimicrobial activity and pharmacological interactions (synergy and additivity) in some of the combinations (double and triple) that were tested in this study adds scientific support to the use of medicinal plant combinations in Western Cape traditional medicine. The metabolic profiles of plants in combination might be unique due to interaction of the different plant bioactive molecules and thus result into defined antimicrobial activity.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In tradisionele geneeskunde is dit ’n lank bestaande kultuur om kruiemiddels te kombineer om die terapeutiese werking daarvan te verhoog. Dié verbeterde mediese werking word toegeskryf aan die oënskynlik sinergistiese interaksies tussen verskillende bioaktiewe plantkomponente. Die doel van hierdie studie was om die farmakologiese interaksies in medisinale plantkombinasies van Agathosma crenulata, Dodonaea viscosa en Eucalyptus globulus te bestudeer. Daar is op die ontleding van hierdie spesifieke mengsel besluit omdat dit oor beduidende antibakteriese waarde beskik en omdat dit uit sewe medisinale plantmengsels wat voorheen bestudeer is, as die doeltreffendste een aangewys is. Die fitochemie van die plante is ook met behulp van chromatografiese ontleding beoordeel. Deur middel van ’n mikroverdunningstoets is die chloroform:metanol- (1:1; v/v-)ekstrakte of hidrogedistilleerde vlugtige olies (A. crenulata en E. globulus) individueel sowel as in kombinasie (dubbele en drievoudige plantkombinasies) nagegaan vir hul werking met betrekking tot vyf respiratoriese patogene. Die gekombineerde antimikrobiese interaksies is met behulp van fraksioneel stremmende konsentrasie (FIC) en isobologramme ondersoek. Die organiese ekstrakte het oor die algemeen die meeste antimikrobiese aktiwiteit by E. globulus getoon, met MIC-waardes onder 1 mg ml-1 wat as noemenswaardige aktiwiteit beskou is. Die algehele aktiwiteit van die waterekstrakte was swak. Die vlugtige-olieaktiwiteit van E. globulus was merendeels noemenswaardig (0,5 tot 2 mg ml-1), terwyl die vlugtige olie van A. crenulata matige aktiwiteit getoon het (1 tot 4 mg ml-1). Die ΣFIC-waardes vir dubbelkombinasies (1:1) van A. crenulata en D. viscosa, A. crenulata en E. globulus, en D. viscosa en E. globulus is uit die minimum stremmende konsentrasie (MIC) bereken en die interaksies is as sinergisties, additief, neutraal en antagonisties geklassifiseer. Die sterkste sinergistiese interaksies is by ’n 1:1-kombinasie van A. crenulata en E. globulus met betrekking tot K. pneumoniae, S. aureus en B. subtilis opgemerk, met ΣFIC-waardes van 0,07. Die studie het slegs een geval van antagonisme opgelewer, naamlik by D. viscosa en E. globulus (1:1) met betrekking tot C. neoformans, wat ’n ΣFIC-waarde van 4,25 geregistreer het. Die werking van die dubbelkombinasies met betrekking tot gekose patogene (K. pneumoniae, S. aureus en E. coli) is voorts met behulp van isobologramme vir interaksies nagegaan. Die antimikrobiese interaksies wat uit die isobologramme geblyk het, was meestal in pas met FIC-resultate, wat die bestaan van tersaaklike antimikrobiese interaksies in daardie kombinasies verder bevestig het. Die ΣFIC-waardes vir die drievoudige kombinasies (1:1:1) het meestal sinergistiese interaksies aan die lig gebring. Toe die drievoudige kombinasies verder op grond van die voorspellings van die sagteware Design of Experiments (MODDE 9.1®) met betrekking tot sekere patogene ontleed is, het die MIC-waardes onveranderd gebly, ondanks verskillende toetskombinasies. Dunlaagchromatografie (TLC) is vir ’n vinnige chemiese ontleding van die plantekstrakte gebruik en is gevolg deur ’n bio-outografiese toets. Die chemiese profiele van die organiese ekstrakte en vlugtige olies van twee van die aromatiese plante in die studie (A. crenulata en E. globulus) is verder met vloeistofchromatografie-massaspektrometrie (LC-MS) en gaschromatografie-massaspektrometrie (GC-MS) onderskeidelik ontleed. Vir gekombineerde plantekstrakte is veelveranderlike-ontleding in die vorm van hoofkomponentontleding (PCA) en hiërargiese groepsontleding (HCA) gebruik om die verhouding van die chemiese samestelling van kombinasies in vergelyking met dié van individuele plantekstrakte te bepaal. Volgens die TLC-ontleding beskik E. globulus-ekstrakte oor meer verbindings as die ander twee plante in die studie. Vir die bio-outografiese toets het E. globulus en kombinasies daarmee groter stremmingsones as A. crenulata en D. viscosa getoon. In die LC-MS-ontleding het PCA en HCA op ’n hegte verhouding tussen A. crenulata en D. viscosa, D. viscosa en E. globulus, en die drievoudige kombinasie daarvan gedui. Een-en-twintig komponente is in die vlugtige olie van A. crenulata gevind, wat 88,83% van die algehele oliesamestelling uitmaak. Die olie is deur suurstofhoudende monoterpene (46,25%) oorheers. Die vlugtige olie van E. globulus het 26 verbindings opgelewer, wat 95,62% van die oliesamestelling uitmaak. Suurstofhoudende monoterpene (32,98%) het ook die vlugtige olie van E. globulus oorheers. Nóg PCA nóg HCA het op enige beduidende variasie in die metaboliete van die vlugtige olies van die individuele plante en hul kombinasies gedui. Die verhoogde in vitro- antimikrobiese aktiwiteit en farmakologiese interaksies (sinergie en additiwiteit) in van die kombinasies (dubbel én drievoudig) wat in hierdie studie getoets is, bied wetenskaplike stawing vir die gebruik van medisinale plantkombinasies in Wes-Kaapse tradisionele geneeskunde. Die metaboliese profiele van plantkombinasies kan verander weens die interaksie van die verskillende bioaktiewe plantmolekules, en kan baie bepaalde antimikrobiese aktiwiteit tot gevolg hê.

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