Eye signs that alert the clinician to a diagnosis of AIDS.
One of the hallmarks of progressive immune deficiency is a steady decline in the absolute number of CD4+ T-lymphocytes. As the immune response thus becomes suppressed, opportunistic systemic infections such as protozoal (Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, disseminated toxoplasmosis), viral (Cytomegalovirus pneumonitis and colitis and persistent invasive herpes simplex lesions), fungal (cryptococcossis and esophageal candidiasis) and bacterial infections (atypical mycobacterial and extrapulmonary tuberculosis) set in to claim their toll. Ocular complications occur in about 75% of AIDS patients and may be divided into four categories: Retinal microangiopathy, Opportunistic infections, Tumours, Neuro-ophthalmological lesions. Only the most frequently occurring manifestations will be highlighted.