Techno-economics of industrial scale beta-ß-D-fructofuranosidase and short-chain fructooligosaccharides production

Shedlock, Matthew (2014-04)

Thesis (MIng)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Enzymes are proteins which act as biological catalysts to enhance the rate of biochemical reactions. They function by reducing the activation energy of the reaction. There is currently no company that manufactures enzymes on an industrial scale in South Africa. A substance known as short-chain fructooligosaccharide (scFOS) is a product that has been growing in popularity on the prebiotics market. ScFOS is produced with an enzyme called ß -D-fructofuranosidase (FFase) and sucrose. FFase is a speciality enzyme which is specifically manufactured for scFOS production. FFase can be produced with the choice of two different recombinant yeast-based production systems, where both were compared in this study. Regarding sucrose sugar supply, South Africa’s sugar industry has export sugar that would be more beneficial to supply locally because of unattractive international sugar prices, where raw sugar is essentially sold at a loss. This makes for a good opportunity to produce scFOS. In this study, an economic model was developed as a tool to determine the economic feasibility of producing FFase and scFOS on a commercial scale locally. The model considered different production scales in order to meet differences in market demand. The facility focused on the production of FFase and scFOS. Scenarios were investigated where FFase is: (i) manufactured within the same plant as scFOS production, (ii) manufactured in a separate facility and bought in by the scFOS production facility, and (iii) manufactured in a toll manufacturing facility and supplied to a scFOS production facility. When comparing the two production strains to produce FFase, alcohol oxidase (AOX) was found to be more effective than glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP). The simulation results incorporating Monte Carlo analysis revealed that FFase should be sold as a product within a multi-product enzyme facility and not as a facility on its own because the demand for this enzyme alone is too low and will therefore not provide enough sales to sustain the business. To achieve the desired internal rate of return on investment (minimum of 30%) scFOS could be produced on an appreciable scale in South Africa at a minimum of 2 000 tonnes per annum irrespective of the scenario. For an scFOS production facility to be successful, it is recommended that FFase and scFOS are produced in the same facility.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Ensieme is proteïene wat as biologiese katalisators optree, wat die tempo van biochemiese reaksies bevorder. Die grondslag van die ensiem se funksie is om die aktiveringsenergie van die reaksies te verlaag. Tans is daar geen maatskappy in Suid Afrika wat ensieme op industriële skaal vervaardig nie. Kort-ketting frukto-oligosakkariede (kkFOS) is ’n verbinding waarin die prebiotiese mark toenemende belangstelling toon. Die kkFOS kan vanaf sukrose geproduseer word in ’n reaksie wat deur die ensiem ß -D-fruktofuranosidase (FFase) gekataliseer word. FFase is ’n spesialiteit ensiem wat pertinent vir die produksie van kkFOS vervaardig word. Dié ensiem kan deur twee rekombinante gis-gebaseerde produksiesisteme geproduseer word, en beide sisteme is in hierdie studie ondersoek. Met verwysing na die sukrose suiker aanbod, Suid Afrika het groot volumes suiker wat vir die uitvoermark bestem is, maar weens hoë internasionale suikerpryse word die suiker effektief teen ’n verlies verkoop. Plaaslike produksie van kkFOS mag dus meer aantreklike geleenthede bied wat tot voordeel van die plaaslike ekonomie aanwend kan word. ’n Ekonomiese model is in hierdie studie ontwikkel wat as instrument kon dien om die ekonomiese haalbaarheid van plaaslike FFase en kkFOS produksie op kommersiële skaal vas te stel. Die gesimuleerde fasiliteit kom beide FFase en kkFOS produseer. Verder het die model verskillende skale van produksie in ag geneem, en sodoende kon die effek van verskille in die aanvraag om die produk gesimuleer word. Die volgende scenario’s vir FFase produksie is ondersoek: (i) produksie in dieselfde aanleg as vir kkFOS produksie, (ii) ensiem word vanaf ’n onafhanklike vervaardiger aangekoop wat dan in ’n ander aanleg vir kkFOS vervaardiging gebruik word, en (iii) die ensiem word deur ’n tol-vervaardigingsaanleg aan die kkFOS aanleg verskaf. ’n Vergelyking tussen twee produksiesisteme het getoon dat die alkohol-oksidase (AO) sisteem meer doeltreffend vir FFase produksie aangewend kon word as ’n sisteem wat op gliseraldehied 3-fosfaat dehidrogenase (GAP) gebaseer was. Die resultaat van die simulasies, met Monte Carlo analises geïnkorporeer, het daarop gedui dat FFase in ‘n meervoudige produk aanleg vervaardig moet word, en nie in ’n aanleg wat slegs op FFase produksie gebaseer is nie. In so ’n enkel-produk aanleg is die vraag na die ensiem nie groot genoeg om die besigheid volhoubaar te maak nie, aangesien die mark nie die nodige verkope sal kan ondersteun nie. Om die teiken interne opbrengskoers van minstens 30% te bereik, moet kkFOS op ’n aanvaarbare skaal van ten minste 2 000 ton per jaar vervaardig word, ongeag van die scenario waarin dit geproduseer word. Vir die suksesvolle produksie van kkFOS word dit aanbeveel dat FFase and kkFOS in dieselfde aanleg geproduseer word.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/86765
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