The synthesis of novel kinase inhibitors using click chemistry

Hodson, Luke (2014-04)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Cancer is the leading cause of death on the planet, killing an estimated 8.2 million people in the year of 2012.The disease is associated with two families of genes, namely oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes. The hallmarks of cancer pathogenesis include gene amplification, point mutations or chromosomal rearrangements within these genes. Kinases are responsible for the reversible phosphorylation of proteins, which plays a significant and extensive role in cellular signal transduction. Aberrant kinase activity provokes overexpression, mutations and chromosomal translocation and results in the onset of onco- and tumorogenesis, ultimately leading to cancer. Inactivation of this class of enzyme is thus critical as it would result in the suppression of these unwanted activities. For this, researchers have developed kinase inhibitors, specifically targeting these proteins and thus inhibiting signal transduction pathways and tumour growth. This has resulted in great successes, particularly in the case of the commercial inhibitor, imatinib. However, resistance to approved therapeutic agents through mutations has resulted in the search for more potent and selective inhibitors to overcome these obstacles. This project involved the synthesis of bioactive heterocycles linked to 1,2,3-triazoles using either a C-C or C-N bond forming strategy. The synthetic methodology followed included the use of Sonogashira coupling reactions between3-bromoquinoline, 7-chloro-4-iodoquinoline, 4-bromoisoquinolineand5-bromoisoquinolineand trimethylsilylacetylene (TMSA), followed by deprotection of the TMS group to yield heterocycles bearing terminal alkynes. The synthesis of both benzyl azide and 2-(azidomethyl)pyridine as azide fragments, allowed for subsequent coupling of the synthesized azide and alkyne fragments through copper-mediated click chemistry, affording a library of 1,4-substituted 1,2,3-triazole based reversible kinase inhibitors. Synthesis of a second library of o-, m- and p-substituted nitro benzyl azides, allowed for both copper- and ruthenium-mediated click reactions, between the alkynes and nitro benzyl azides synthesized, to yield 1,4- and 1,5-substituted 1,2,3-triazoles, respectively. Finally, reduction of the incorporated o-, m- and p- substituted nitro group, and acylation of the resultant amine with acryloyl chloride, resulted in the incorporation of the important Michael acceptor moiety required for irreversible inhibition. This afforded a library of both reversible and potential irreversible triazole-based kinase inhibitors through efficient copper- and ruthenium-mediated click chemistry. Biological screening and activity assays against the wildtype, and two mutated forms of the EGFR kinase, were undertaken with these synthesized compounds.A number of synthesized inhibitors showed good selectivity for the mutated forms of the EGFR kinase only.The most potent inhibitor N-{2-{[4-(isoquinolin-4-yl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl]methyl}phenyl}acrylamide,displayed efficacy in the low μM range - comparable to that of the FDA approved drug, gefitinib. The synthetic methodology derived in this project could be applied to the use of biological space probes with further investigatory research. Furthermore, from the biological screening results obtained, and the selectivity profile shown by these inhibitors, the synthesis of a second generation library of compounds is an additional research possibility.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Kanker is die hoof oorsaak van sterftes ter wêreld, wat verantwoordelik is vir die dood van ongeveer 8.2 miljoen mense in die jaar 2012. Die siekte word geassosieer met twee geenfamilies, naamlik onkogene en gewasonderdrukkingsgene. Die kenmerke van kanker pathiogene behels geenversterking, puntmutasies of chromosomale herrangskikking binne in die gene. Kinase is verantwoordelik vir die omkeerbare fosforilering van proteine wat 'n uiters belangrike rol in sellulere sein transduksie speel. Abnormale kinase aktiwiteit lei tot ooruitdrukking, mutasies en chromosomale translokasie wat tot die ontwikkeling van onko- en gewasgroei en wat eindelik tot kanker lei. Deaktivering van die klas van ensieme is dus krities want dit sal die ongewenste abnormale aktiwiteite onderdruk. As gevolg van die bogenoemde, het navorsers kinase inhibeerders ontwikkel wat die spesifieke protein teiken en hiermee die sein transduksie roete asook gewas groei inhibeer. Hiermee het die sukses van inhibeerders veral die kommersiele inhibeerder, imatinib, grootliks toegeneem. Oor die afgelope jare het die belangstelling in die ontwikkeling van meer selektiewe en kragtige inhibeerders toegeneem as gevolg van die weerstand wat goedgekeurde terapeutiese middels opbou. In hierdie projek is daar gebruik gemaak van 'n C-C of C-N bindingsvorming strategie om bioaktiewe heterosikliese molekules te sintetiseer wat gekoppel is aan 1,2,3-triasool funksionele groepe. Die sintetiese metode maak gebruik van Sonogashira reaksies vir die 3-bromo-kwinolien, 7-chloro-4-iodokwinolien, 4-bromoisokwinolien en 5-bromoisokwinolien met trimetielsilielasetileen (TMSA), gevolg met die ontskerming van die TMS-groep om die terminale alkyn op die heterosiklusse te ontbloot. Die asied fragmente, bensiel asied en 2-(asidometiel)piridien, was toe gesintetiseer om met die gevormde heterosiklus alkyne 'n koper ondersteunende kliek chemie te ondergaan. 'n Reeks van 1,4-digesubstitueerde 1,2,3-triasool gebaseerde omkeerbare kinase inhibitore is toe gevorm. 'n Tweede reeks met o-, m-, en p- gesubtitueerde nitro bensiel asiede was gesintetiseer om 1,4- en 1,5- digesubtitueerde 1,2,3-triasole te sintetiseer met behulp van koper- en ruthenium ondersteunende kliek chemie. Laastens was die o-, m-, en p- nitro groepe gereduseer om 'n primêre amien te vorm. Die gevormende amien het 'n asileringsreaksie met akriloïel chloried ondergaan om die kern, die Michael akseptor, te inkorporeer. Die Michael akseptor word benodig om 'n onomkeerbare inhibitoriese aktiwiteit te kan uitvoer. Die projek het dus met behulp van kliek chemie, twee 1,2,3-triasool reekse gelewer wat omkeerbare en onomkeerbare inhibitoriese aktiwiteit kan uitvoer. Die verbindings gesintetiseerd in hierdie projek het keuringstoetse ondergaan teen die wilde tipe en teen twee gemuteerde forme van die EGFR kinase ensiem. Van hierdie verbindings het goeie selektiwiteit vertoon teenoor die gemuteerde EGFR kinase ensiem. Die mees aktiewe inhibeerder, N-{2-{[4-isokwinolin-4-iel)-1H-1,2,3-triasool-1-iel]feniel}akrielamied, het aktiwiteit in die lae μM reeks vertoon. Dié inhibisie waarde is vergelykbaar met die FDA goedgekeurde medikasie, gefitinib. In hierdie projek is sintetiese metodes ontwikkel wat toegepas kan word op meer intensiewe biologiese ondersoeke en asook meer navorsing. Die resultate vekry van die biologiese aktiwiteit, asook die verbindings se selektiwiteit, gee die moontlikheid vir die ontwikkeling en sintese van 'n tweede generasie verbindings.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/86704
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