Interaction between wine yeast and malolactic bacteria and the impact on wine aroma and flavour

Maarman, Brenton Christopher (2014-04)

Thesis (MScAgric)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Wine is a product of the fermentation of grape juice. Alcoholic fermentation is mainly conducted by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae which metabolises grape sugars to mainly ethanol, CO2 and glycerol. Aside from these primary fermentation compounds, the yeast also produces many secondary metabolic by-products that are important to wine quality and style. Malolactic fermentation (MLF) is a secondary fermentation that normally occurs after alcoholic fermentation. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are responsible for the conversion of malic acid to lactic acid and CO2 during MLF, which is important for wine deacidification and also contributes to microbial stability. Malolactic fermentation and LAB strains can also influence the aroma profile of wines. The main genera associated with this process are Oenococcus, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Leuconostoc. Oenococcus oeni is the main species associated with MLF because it is able to survive the harsh physiochemical environment of winemaking. Recently L. plantarum has also been introduced as a commercial MLF starter culture. Research has started to focus on the potential of wine yeast and LAB interactions or combinations to alter the wine aroma profile via the production and/or degradation of aroma compounds. The overriding goal of this study is to unravel the interactions between wine yeast and different LAB strains and their impact on wine aroma and flavour. The first aim was to assess LAB growth during co- and sequential inoculation strategies, the ability to complete MLF and the impact on the production of aroma compounds in combination with two different yeast strains in a medium containing full complement of nitrogen supplementation. Malolactic fermentation was successful in the different inoculation strategies and the bacterial combination (L. plantarum and O. oeni) completed MLF in the shortest time. The impact of the bacterial strains on the modification of aroma compounds was bigger in co- than sequential inoculation. A general increase in total esters (contributing to the fruity character of wines) especially ethyl lactate and ethyl acetate was observed. The production of esters, volatile fatty acids and higher alcohols proved to be dependent on either the yeast strain used and/or the LAB strains used. The second aim of the research was to assess the effect of NH4Cl (ammonium) and amino acids supplementation on yeast and LAB strains (both in co- and sequential inoculation strategies) and the impact on the aroma profile of the fermented must. Fermentations supplemented with ammonia as sole nitrogen source showed the highest total bacterial growth in terms of cell numbers. Malolactic fermentation was completed in the shortest time with O. oeni and the bacterial combination inoculums. The co-inoculated strategies in combination with amino acids supplementation showed the biggest impact on the aroma compound profiles of the different fermentation strategies and bacterial treatments. A general increase in total esters was observed for NH4Cl additions with ethyl lactate and ethyl acetate showing the highest concentrations. The concentration of esters, volatile fatty acids and higher alcohols were strongly influenced by the yeast and the single LAB strains used. The results generated from this study showed that the chemical composition of the fermentation medium and the selection of yeast and LAB strains are important because these factors have an influence on the aroma and flavour profiles of wines.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Wyn is die produk van gefermenteerde druiwe. Die gis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is verantwoordelik vir alkoholiese fermentasies waar druiwe suikers na hoofsaaklik etanol, CO2 en gliserol gemetaboliseer word. Die gis produseer ook sekondêre metaboliete wat ‘n belangrike bydrae lewer tot wynstyl en kwaliteit. Appelmelksuurgisting (AMG) is ‘n sekondêre fermentasie wat gewoonlik na alkoholiese fermentasie plaasvind. Melksuurbakterieë (MSB) speel ‘n sleutel rol in die omskakeling van appelsuur na melksuur en CO2 gedurende AMG. Hierdie fermentasie lei tot ‘n afname in die suurheidsgraad en verbeter die mikrobiese stabiliteit van die wyn. Appelmelksuurgisting en MSB rasse kan die aroma- en geurprofiel van wyne beïnvloed. Die belangrikste genera wat met AMG geassosieer word is Oenococcus, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus en Leuconostoc. Oenococcus oeni is die mees algemene ras wat vir AMG gebruik word omdat dit in uiterste wyn toestande kan oorleef. Mees onlangs is Lactobacillus plantarum as kommersiële aanvangskultuur vir AMG geïdentifiseer. Navorsing het onlangs meer begin fokus op gis en MSB interaksie of kombinasies as ‘n strategie om die aroma profiele van wyne te verander. Die hoofdoel van die studie is om die interaksie tussen wyngiste en verskillende MSB rasse en die effek op die aroma profile van wyne te bestudeer. Die eerste doelwit was om die impak van die twee giste op die groei en AMG vermoeë van MSB gedurende ko- en sekwensiële inokulasie praktyke en die impak op die produksie van aroma komponente, in ‘n medium wat die volledige stikstof aanvullings bevat, te bestudeer. Appelmelksuurgisting was suksesvol in die verskillende inokulasie praktyke en die bakteriese kombinasie (L. plantarum en O. oeni) het AMG in die kortste tyd voltooi. Die impak van die bakteriese rasse op die modifikasie van die aroma komponente was groter met ko- as sekwensiële inokulasies. Daar was ‘n toename in die totale esterkonsentrasies veral in etiellaktaat en etielasetaat. Die produksie van esters, vlugtige vetsure en hoër alkohole word beïnvloed deur die gisras en MSB rasse wat gebruik word. Die tweede doelwit was om die impak van NH4Cl (ammonium) en aminosure aanvullings op die gis- en MSB rasse gedurende ko- en sekwensiële inokulasie strategieë te bepaal. Melksuurbakterieë se groei was beter met die ammonium aanvulling. Appelmelksuurgisting was in die kortste tyd voltooi met O. oeni en die bakteriese kombinasie. Die ko-inokulasie praktyke in kombinasie met die kompleks aminosure aanvulling het die grootste impak op die produksie van aroma komponente gehad. Daar was weereens ‘n toename in die totale esterkonsentrasies vir die NH4Cl aanvulling, veral in etiellaktaat en etielasetaat. Die gis en MSB rasse speel ‘n rol by die produksie en konsentrasies van esters, vlugtige vetsure en hoër alkohole. Die resultate van hierdie studie bewys dat die chemiese samestelling van die fermentasie medium, die seleksie van gis- en MSB rasse is belangrik omdat hierdie faktore die aroma en geur profiele van wyne beïnvloed.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/86703
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