The evaluation of biological, mechanical and chemical methods to contain South African abalone species (Haliotis midae)

Fourie, Lize (2014-04)

Thesis (MScAgric)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Haliotis midae (HM) is one of five indigenous abalone species occurring along the coast of South Africa, and is the only species commercially cultivated in open flow-through systems. Commercial production of HM contributes the most to income generated from aquaculture species in South Africa. Exports in 2011 totalled 1036 ton, which amounts to an income of ZAR 369 million (40 million USD). Commercial production of HM is characterized by a long interval (i.e. up to five years) to harvest. Genetic modification of HM to improve growth rate in HM can potentially decrease the interval from hatch to harvest, which will contribute to optimising the cost-efficient production of HM. However, a major concern in the production of genetically modified (GM) abalone is their escape from production systems, and the potential impact of the GM animals on the natural stocks in the surrounding environment. The implementation of containment methods to prevent the escape from GM abalone from production systems will assist in the management of the potential ecological risks escaped GM abalone may pose. Currently no containment strategies exist for the South African abalone industry, which limits the use of transgenic biotechnologies to optimise the cost-efficient production of HM. The study therefore investigated the potential of biological methods (triploid induction), mechanical methods (polypropylene filter bags and obstructive materials), and chemical methods (sodium hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide) to contain transgenic HM in open flow-through systems. Histological evaluation of gonad tissue samples of 16 triploid male and 15 triploid female HM indicated that triploid induction was unsuccessful in arresting gonad differentiation, development, and function. A combination of immature and mature gametes was observed on both triploid male and female gonads. The fertilizing potential of biopsied sperm obtained from triploid and induced diploid male HM was assessed in fertilization trials using ova obtained from diploid HM. No larvae were observed from the fertilization treatments of triploid male biopsied sperm, however, abnormal larvae (0.01% fertilization) were observed when induced diploid sperm were used to fertilize diploid ova. Polypropylene filter bags (100 μm) were not effective in containing male and female gametes in the broodstock section of the abalone culture system used in this study, and future studies should address specialized methods of containment of HM gametes. Polypropylene filters (100 μm), resulted in effective containment of larvae and settlement larvae, and in this study was not a more effective method of containment than the current on-farm larvae containment protocol. The three obstructive materials were effective in containing HM spat, and did not differ in their ability as containment methods. Sodium hypochlorite and Biox™, chlorine-based chemicals, were effective in containing the five life stages of HM, i.e. sperm, ova, larvae, settlement larvae and spat. The respective life stages were exposed to varying concentrations of the respective chemicals (i.e. 10 ppm, 50 ppm and 100 ppm) over five exposure times (i.e. 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 minutes). Sodium hypochlorite and Biox™, at the different concentrations and exposure times, resulted in mortalities in all five HM life stages, with higher incidences recorded at the higher concentrations evaluated. Future research on the effect of triploid induction on the endocrine system, and how effective gonad maturation and function is suppressed, needs to be conducted. The aspects of mosaics occurring in induced diploid animals warrant further investigation with a larger sample size to verify the findings of this study. The production of true sterile individuals would improve the results to use of GM animals as a method of biological containment. Incorporation of mechanical containment methods need to be kept in mind when abalone production systems are designed. The use of chemical containment methods warrants additional studies on the practical administration and the economic feasibility of the chemical into the water supply of open flow-through abalone culture systems.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Haliotis midae (HM) is een van vyf inheemse perlemoen spesies wat langs die kus van Suid-Afrika voorkom en is die enigste spesie wat kommersieel in oop deurvloeistelsels geproduseer word. Kommersiële produksie van HM dra die meeste tot kommersiële akwakultuur produksie by, met uitvoere van 1036 ton in 2011, wat gelykstaande aan ‘n inkomste van ZAR 369 miljoen (40 miljoen VSA dollar). Kommersiële produksie van HM word gekenmerk deur 'n lang interval (d.i. tot 5 jaar) vanaf uitbroei tot oes. Genetiese modifisering van HM om die groeitempo te verbeter kan potensieel die interval tot slagmassa verkort, wat potensieel tot die optimalisering van die kostedoeltreffende produksie van HM kan bydra. 'n Groot bron van kommer met die produksie van geneties gemodifiseerde (GM) perlemoen is hul ontsnapping uit produksiestelsels en die potensiële impak van die GM diere op die natuurlike perlemoenpopulasies in die omliggende omgewing. Die implementering van beheermetodes om die ontsnapping van GM perlemoen uit produksiestelsels te voorkom sal die bestuur van die potensiële ekologiese risiko's wat GM perlemoen mag inhou, vergemaklik. Tans bestaan daar geen inperking strategieë vir GM diere vir die Suid-Afrikaanse perlemoenbedryf nie, wat die gebruik van transgeniese biotegnologieë vir die kostedoeltreffende produksie van HM beperk. Die studie het dus die potensiaal van biologiese metodes (triploïed induksie), meganiese metodes (polipropileen filters en obstruktiewe materiaal) en chemiese metodes (natriumhipochloriet en Biox™) om as inperk strategieë vir die bestuur van transgeniese HM in oop deurvloei produksiesisteme gebruik te word, ondersoek. Histologiese evaluering van gonadeweefsel monsters van 16 manlike en 15 vroulike triploïed HM het aangedui dat triploïed induksie onsuksesvol was om gonade differensiasie, ontwikkeling, en funksie te onderdruk. 'n Kombinasie van onvolwasse en volwasse gamete is in gonades van beide manlike en vroulike triploïed HM waargeneem. Die bevrugtingsvermoë van sperme wat versamel is met behulp van ʼn biopsie metode van triploïed en geïnduseerde diploïed HM is geëvalueer in bevrugtingsproewe met ova wat van diploïed HM versamel is. Geen larwes is waargeneem met die gebruik van die triploïed sperme nie, maar abnormale larwes (0.01% bevrugting) het wel voorgekom met die evaluering van sperme versamel van geïnduseerde diploïed HM. Die voorkoms van mosaïek diere (d.i. ʼn kombinasie van beide diploïed en triploïed selle in een individu) wat ontstaan a.g.v. onvolledige triploïed induksie noodsaak verdere navorsing met ʼn groter monster diere om die vermoë van triploïed induksie om HM steriel te maak, te verifieer. Polipropileen filters (100 μm) was nie effektief om beide manlike en vroulike gamete wat in die teelafdeling in die perlemoenkultuursisteem in hierdie studie geproduseer is, vas te vang nie. Toekomstige studies moet gespesialiseerde metodes wat insluiting van HM gamete moontlik sal maak, ondersoek. Polipropileenfilters (100 μm) was effektief met die inkamping van larwes en vestigingslarwes, met die filters wat nie meer doeltreffend as die bestaande inkampingsmetodes in die produksiesisteem was nie. Die drie obstruktiewe materiale was doeltreffend ten opsigte van die inkamping van onvolwasse perlemoen individue, met die 3 materiale wat ewe doeltreffend in hulle vermoë was om die onvolwasse HM se ontsnapping uit die sisteem te voorkom. Natriumhipochloriet en Biox™, chloor-gebaseerde chemikalieë, was effektief om die onderskeie 5 lewenstadiums, d.i. HM sperme en ova, larwes, vestigingslarwes en onvolwasse HM se voorkoms tot hulle onderskeie afdelings binne die produksiesisteem te beperk. Die onderskeie lewensstadiums is blootgestel aan verskillende konsentrasies van die onderskeie chemikalieë (d.i. 10 dpm, 50 dpm en 100 dpm) oor vyf tydsintervalle (d.i. 4, 6, 8, 10 en 12 minute). Natriumhipochloriet en Biox™ het ʼn letale effek op al vier lewensstadia gehad, met hoër sterftes wat met hoër konsentrasies aangeteken is. Toekomstige navorsing oor die uitwerking van triploïed induksie op die endokriene stelsel en hoe doeltreffend die rypwording en funksie van die gonades onderdruk word, moet aandag geniet. Die voorkoms van mosaïek diere regverdig ook spesifieke aandag in toekomstige navorsing. Die produksie van ware steriele individue sou die gebruik van GM perlemoen as 'n metode van biologiese inkamping moontlik maak. Inlywing van meganiese inkampingmetodes moet in gedagte gehou word wanneer perlemoen produksiestelsels ontwerp word. Die gebruik van chemiese inkampingmetodes benodig verdere studies om te verseker dat die chemiese middels so bekostigbaar en prakties as moontlik in water van 'n oop deurvloei perlemoen produksiestelsel toegedien kan word.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/86530
This item appears in the following collections: