A profile of children in the Avian park and Zweletemba settlements in the Breede Valley local municipality of the Western Cape Province, South Africa

Koornhof, Hilletjie Elizabeth (2014-04)

Thesis (Mnutr)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Objectives: To describe the mothers/ primary caregivers’ (PCGs) and children’ anthropometric status; their household food security and poverty in relation to type of housing; and compare households receiving and not receiving a Child Support Grant (CSG) in relation to mothers/ PCGs’ anthropometric status, their dietary diversity, age, employment, educational level, monthly household income, size, food security and children’s anthropometric status. Design: Cross sectional, descriptive study. Subjects: Mothers/ PCGs (443) and their children from 211 households in Avian Park and 242 Zweletemba in Worcester, Western Cape Province. Methods: Data collected by interviewer administered questionnaires included socio-demographic data, Lived Poverty Index, Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) and dietary diversity score (DDS). Anthropometric measurements included weight, height and waist circumference (WC) of mothers/ PCGS and weight, height and mid-upper-arm circumference of children. Households living in formal (brick houses, town houses, flats) and informal (squatter shacks, huts) houses, and households receiving CSGs and those without CSG, were compared using X2-test for categorical data and the independent t-test for continuous data. Results: Prevalence of stunting, underweight and wasting in children was 20.7%, 5.6% and 1.2% respectively. Overweight and obesity occurred in 27% and 37% of mothers/PCGs respectively and together with a mean WC (89.5 cm; SD 16.7) indicated an increased risk for non-communicable diseases. Food security existed in 63.1% households. Formal households were more food secure than informal households (68% versus 50%; p=0.0004) and fewer mothers/ PCGs of formal households had a DDS < 4 (52.2% versus 64.7%; p = 0.0157). The healthier socio-economic situation in formal households compared to informal households was shown by the higher monthly income (R3 479 versus R2 316; p = 0.0009) and Household Asset Index (2.24 versus –5.31; p <0.0001). Age, marital status, education level and employment status of mothers/primary caregivers in CSG households and non-CSG households were similar. Household size was larger (p<0.0001) in CSG (median = 5 persons) versus non-CSG households (median = 4 persons); CSG households had more people per room (2.7 [SD 1.5] versus 2.3 [SD 1.2]; p=0.0037). CSG households had lower monthly income than non-CSG households (R2 723 [SD R3 297] versus R4 520 [SD R6 464]; p=0.0033). Mean HFIAS scores showed more food insecurity in CSG households than non-CSG (3.55 versus 2.37; p= 0.0178), but dietary diversity was similar. Stunting in children was higher in CSG (34.9%) versus non-CSG (22.7%) households. CSG mothers/PCGs had larger (p = 0.021) waist circumferences (90.0 cm; SD = 16.8) than non-CSG mother/PCGs (88.5 cm; SD = 16.5) Conclusion: Childhood malnutrition and maternal overweight /obesity co-existed. Dietary diversity of all mothers/ PCGs was low. The assessment of type of housing and social security showed children in informal housing households had a poorer socio-economic situation and children in CSG households also experienced more monthly income poverty and household food insecurity. The level of stunting was higher in CSG households. Improving low dietary diversity should be a priority in interventions addressing food insecurity, taking into consideration this may be more difficult to achieve in informal households and CSG households.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Doel: Om die antropometriese status van moeders/ primêre versorgers en hul kinders; hul huishoudelike voedselsekerheid en armoede met betrekking tot tipe behuising waarin hul woon, te beskryf; asook om huishoudings wat ‘n kindersorgtoelaag ontvang te vergelyk met die daarsonder in terme van die antropometriese status van moeders/ primêre versorgers, hul dieetdiversiteit, ouderdom, indiensneming/ werkstatus, opvoedkundige vlak, huishoudelike maandelikse inkomste en grootte, voedselsekerheid en die antropometriese status van hul kinders. Ontwerp: ‘n Beskrywende, deursnit studie. Deelnemers: Moeders/ primêre versorgers (447) en hul kinders van 211 huishoudings in Avian Park en 242 in Zweletemba. Metodes: Data-insameling is gedoen met onderhoudvoerder geadministreerde vraelyste insluitend sosio-demografiese inligting, die belewing-van-armoede-indeks, huishoudelike voedselonsekerheid-en-toegangskaal en dieetdiversiteitstelling. Antropometriese metings van moeders/ primêre versorgers het behels gewig, lengte en middelyfomtrek en gewig lengte en bo-armomtrek van kinders. Huishoudings woonagtig in formele (baksteenhuise, meenthuise, woonstelle) en informele huise (plakkershutte), en huishoudings wat die kindersorgtoelaag ontvang en nie, is vergelyk met behulp van die X2-toets vir kategoriese data en ‘n onafhanklike t-toets vir aaneenlopende data. Resultate: Die voorkoms van dwerggroei, ondergewig en uittering in kinders was onderskeidelik 20.7%, 5.6% en 1.2%. Oorgewig en vetsug het onderskeidelik voorgekom by 27% en 37% van moeders/ primêre versorgers en hul gemiddelde middelyfomtrek was 89.5 sentimeter (SA 16.7), wat aanduidend is van ‘n verhoogde risiko vir nie-oordraagbare siektes. Voedselsekerheid het voorgekom in 63.1% van huishoudings. Formele huishoudings het meer voedsekerheid ervaar as informele huishoudings (68% versus 50%; p=0.0004) en minder formele huishouding moeders/ primêre versorgers het ‘n dieetdiversiteitstelling < 4 (52.2% versus 64.7%; p = 0.0157) gehad. Beter sosio-ekonomiese omstandighede van formele huishoudings in vergelyking met informele huishoudings was sigbaar in hul hoër maandelikse inkomste (R3 479 versus R2 316; p = 0.0009) en huishoudelike bates-indeks (2.24 versus –5.31; p <0.0001). Die ouderdom, huwelikstatus, opvoedkundige vlak en werkstatus van moeders/ primêre versorgers in huishoudings wat ‘n kindersorgtoelaag ontvang en die huishoudings daarsonder was soortgelyk. Huishoudingsgrootte was groter (p<0.0001) in kindersorgtoelaag- (mediaan = 5 persone) versus geen-kindersorgtoelaaghuishoudings (mediaan = 4 persone); In kindersorgtoelaaghuishoudings het meer persone ‘n kamer gedeel (2.7 [SA 1.5] versus 2.3 [SA 1.2]; p=0.0037). Die maandelikse inkomste in kindersorgtoelaaghuishoudings was laer as in dié daarsonder (R2 723 [SA R3 297] versus R4 520 [SA R6 464]; p=0.0033). Die huishoudelike voedselonsekerheid-en-toegangskaal-tellings het meer voedselonsekerheid (p = 0.0178) getoon in kindersorgtoelaaghuishoudings as in huishoudings daarsonder (3.55 versus 2.37; p= 0.0178), maar hul dieetdiversiteit was dieselfde. Dwerggroei was meer in kindersorgtoellaagkinders (34.9%) versus geen-kindersorgtoelaagkinders (22.7%). Die gemiddelde middellyfomtrek van kindersorgtoellaagmoeders/ -primêre versorgers was groter (t-toets: p = 0.021) (90.0 cm; SA = 16.8) as die van moeders/ primêre versorgers wat nie ‘n kindersorgtoelaag (88.5 cm; SA = 16.5) ontvang het nie. Samevatting: Wanvoeding in kinders, tesame met oorgewig en obesiteit in moeders/ primêre versorgers is waargeneem Die dieetdiversiteit van die moeders/ primêre versorgers was laag. Die ontleding van die rol van behuising en sosiale sekerheid het getoon dat die sosio-ekonomiese omstandighede van kinders woonagtig in informele behuising, asook die waarvoor moeders/ primêre versorgers ‘n kindersorgtoelaag ontvang het, is blootgestel aan meer inkomste-armoede en voedselonsekerheid in hul huishoudings. Die verbetering van lae dieetdiversiteit moet ‘n prioriteit wees in intervensieprogramme om voedselsekerheid aan te spreek, met inagneming dat die bereiking daarvan moeilker mag wees om in informele en kindersorgtoelaag-huishoudings.

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