Evaluating ethanol yields of wine yeast strains under various fermentative conditions

Morgenroth, Olaf (2014-04)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The market for high quality lower alcohol wines is growing globally. Several factors are responsible for this trend, with socio-economic and health concerns being considered as being the most relevant. It is therefore no surprise that in the past three decades many systems have been developed to reduce wine ethanol levels, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. However, current systems are not always cost effective and frequently result in unwanted side-effects. Microbiological methods primarily based on redirecting carbon flux in existing, or novel Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeast strains, might have the potential to eliminate or reduce such shortcomings. However, little base-line information regarding differences in ethanol yields of existing wine yeast strains, and on the impact of fermentation conditions on such yields is currently available. In this study the ethanol yield of 15 wine yeast strains was investigated in synthetic wine must under varied wine fermentative conditions including changes in yeast assimilable nitrogen, sugar concentration, pH and fermenting temperatures to identify strains that produce lower ethanol yields and conditions that would favour such an outcome. Most strains and conditions resulted in very similar ethanol yields, however in some cases interesting differences were observed. Some of the strains showed significant differences between high and low nitrogen containing must. Results from synthetic must were confirmed in grape must (Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay, Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon), but no consistent response could be observed. Interestingly the Shiraz fermentations always showed a higher ethanol yield for all strains investigated. This may be due to a parameter (or combination thereof) which was not included as an experimental factor in our study. Glycerol yield was also studied in the grape must experiments and was found to be more significantly condition dependent than ethanol yield. Temperature and glycerol seemed to be directly proportional confirming the results of previous studies. While temperature did increase glycerol production, it was concluded that the redirection of carbon towards glycerol was not substantial enough to have measurable effect on the final ethanol concentration. The most notable differences which were observed were very specific to a particular yeast strain and condition pairing, thus no generally applicable treatment to achieve lower ethanol yields could be established.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Deesdae is daar ‘n groeiende mark vir lae alkohol wyne van hoë gehalte. Verskeie faktore is verantwoordelik vir hierdie verskynsel, met sosio-ekonomiese en gesondheidskwessies as die hoof rolspelers. Vir hierdie rede is daar gedurende die laaste drie dekades baie stelsels ontwikkel om wyn etanol vlakke te verlaag, elkeen met voor- en nadele. Meeste van die huidige stelsels is nie koste effektief nie en lei gewoonlik tot ongewenste newe effekte. Mikrobiologiese metodes wat gebaseer is op koolstof vloei veranderinge in wyn gisrasse mag die potensiaal bied om hierdie tekortkominge te verminder of te oorbrug. ‘n Alternatief is om nuwe Saccharomyces en nie-Saccharomyces gisrasse te identifiseer wat laer etanol opbrengste lewer. In hierdie studie is die etanol opbrengste van 15 wyn gisrasse ondersoek in ‘n sintetiese mos in verskeie toestande, bv. veranderde stikstof vlakke, suiker vlakke, pH en temperatuur, om die rasse te identifiseer wat laer etanol opbrengste lewer (asook die toestande wat laer etanol opbrengste bevorder). Meeste rasse en toestande het soortgelyke etanol opbrengste getoon, alhoewel daar in sekere gevalle interessante verskille was rakende sekere rasse wat verskillende resultate lewer in mos met verskillende stikstof vlakke. Die resultate van die sintetiese mos eksperimente was bevestig in druiwe mos van vier kultivars (Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay, Shiraz en Cabernet Sauvignon), maar geen algemene tendens kon afgelei word nie. Wat interessant was is die feit dat die Shiraz fermentasies altyd hoër etanol opbrengste gelewer het vir al vier gisrasse wat gebruik is vir hierdie eksperimente. Dit mag wees weens ‘n eksperimentele faktor wat nie bestudeer was in die raamwerk van hierdie projek nie. Die opbrengs van gliserol was ook bepaal in die verskeie eksperimente en daar was gevind dat gliserol opbrengs baie meer kondisie-afhanklik is in vergelyking met etanol. Temperatuur en gliserol het ‘n direkte verbandskap met mekaar getoon, wat die bevindinge van vorige studies bevestig. Alhoewel verhogings in temperatuur wel gliserol produksie vermeerder het, was die effek nie genoeg om ‘n meetbare impak op die finale etanol konsentrasie te hê nie. Verskillende giste in verskeie verskillende fermentasie toestande het soortgelyke etanol opbrengste gelewer. Die mees merkbare verskille wat bevind is was spesifiek tot individuele gisras en kondisie kombinasies, maar geen algemene afleiding kon gemaak word rakende behandelings wat etanol opbrengste kan verlaag nie.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/86379
This item appears in the following collections: