The relationship between job demands, job resources, engagement, burnout and intention to quit

Cole, Beatrix (2014-04)

Thesis (MComm)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The increasing demand for client-services in a highly competitive business environment has resulted in a substantial increase in the number of call centres in South Africa and worldwide (Carrim, Basson & Coetzee, 2006). Within the call centre industry, turnover intentions have been identified as one of the most pressing problems in terms of cost and productivity. This research suggests that the exploration and then the alteration of job resources and job demands will help elicit factors that foster engagement and will help lessen and/or alleviate burnout experiences. This in turn will help to decrease turnover intentions in the South African call centre industry. This research attempts to investigate the proposed relationships between the constructs in a structural model. The literature review defines turnover, turnover intention, engagement, burnout as well as job demands and job resources, using the Job Demands- Resources model. It also discusses the importance for organisations to understand employees’ turnover intentions. The literature review aims to portray that there are relationships between the five constructs. The current research was conducted in 5 inbound/outbound South African call centres. The sample was comprised of 122 participants and a non-probability sampling technique, convenience sampling was utilized. A self-developed Biographical Questionnaire, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) and the Maslach Burnout Inventory Questionnaire (MBI) were used as measuring instruments. Job demands and job resources using the Work Design Questionnaire (WDQ) by Morgeson and Humphrey (2006) were used as well as a Turnover Intentions Questionnaire developed by Roodt (2004) cited in Adam and Roodt (2008). A reliability analysis was done to assess the measurement properties of the respective measures, and all scales showed highly acceptable reliability. The data wereanalysed using the soft approach to Structural Equation Modeling that is Partial least squares path modeling. The results indicate that all of the relationships tested are significant. A model testing engagement and burnout as mediators were also investigated. Both relationships were insignificant hence engagement is a mediator between job resources and intention to quit and burnout a mediator between job demands and intention to quit. This was also confirmed by two separate Sobel tests (Sobel, 1982). This study adds to existing literature on job resources, job demands, engagement, burnout and intention to quit by providing insights into the relationships among these constructs. This study also provides call centres with valuable information for the development and/or alterations of working conditions aimed at mitigating turnover behavior and maximizing organizational outcomes through an engaged workforce.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die toenemende vraag na kliënt-dienste, in 'n hoogs mededingende sakeomgewing, het gelei tot 'n aansienlike toename in die aantal van oproep-diens sentrums in Suid-Afrika asook die wêreld (Carrim, Basson & Coetzee, 2006). Intensie om te bedank is geïdentifiseer as een van die mees dringende probleme in terme van koste en produktiwiteit, binne oproepsentrums. Hierdie navorsing dui daarop dat die eksplorasie en die verandering van werkbronne met betrekking tot die werksomgewing en werkvereistes; sal faktore ontlok wat kan aanleiding gee tot die verbintenis betrokkenheid van personnel, en sal ook help om uitbranding ervarings te verminder of om te verlaag. Dit op sy beurt sal meerbring dat intensie om te bedank dus verlaag word binne die Suid-Afrikaanse oproepsentrum-bedryf. Hierdie navorsing poog om die voorgestelde verwantskap tussen die konstrukte in 'n strukturele model te ondersoek. Die literatuuroorsig definieer omset, intensie om te bedank, verbetenis, uitbranding sowel as werkvereistes en werkbronne, met die hulp van die werk-eise model. Dit bespreek ook die belangrikheid vir organisasies om werknemer omset bedoelings te verstaan. Die literatuuroorsig poog om die verwantskap tussen die vyf konstrukte te illustreer. Die huidige navorsing was gedoen by 5 inkomende/uitgaande Suid- Afrikaanse oproepsentrums. Eenhonderd twee en twintig (122) deelnemers was in die navorsing gebruik en 'n nie-waarskynlikheidsteekproefneming tegniek, gerieflikheidsteekproef was benut. 'n Self-ontwikkelde biografiese vraelys, die Utrecht Werksbegeesteringskaal (UWES) en die Maslach Uitbrandingsvraelys (MBI) was as meetinstrumente gebruik. Werkvereiste en werkbronne was gemeet deur die werk Ontwerp vraelys (WDQ) wat deur Morgeson en Humphrey (2006) ontwikkel is, addisioneel tot die voorafgaande was omset bedoelings vraelyste wat deur Roodt (2004) ontwikkel is soos aangehaal in Adam en Roodt (2008). 'n Betroubaarheid analise is gedoen om die meting eienskappe van die onderskeie maatreëls te evalueer, en daar is bevind dat al die skale hoogs aanvaarbare betroubaarheid toon. Die data is ontleed met gebruik van die sagte benadering tot strukturele vergelykingsmodellering wat PLS modellering. Die resultate dui daarop dat al die verhoudings wat getoets was betekenisvol is. 'n Model toets verbintenis en uitbranding as bemiddelaar is ook ondersoek. Beide verhoudings was onbeduldende daarom is verbintenis ‘n bemiddelaar tussen werkbronne en voorneme om te bedank en uitbranding 'n bemiddelaar tussen werk eise en intensie om te bedank. Dit is ook bevestig deur twee afsonderlike Sobel toetse (Sobel, 1982). Hierdie studie dra by tot die bestaande literatuur oor werkbronne, werkwerkvereistes, uitbranding en intensie om op te bedank deur die verskaffing van insigte in die verhoudings tussen hierdie konstrukte. Hierdie studie bied ook vir oproepdiens-sentrums waardevolle inligting vir die ontwikkeling en/of verandering van werksomstandighede wat daarop gemik is om die veranderende opset van omset gedrag en om optimale uitkoms van verandering vir die organisasie deur 'n betrokke werksmag te benut.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/86368
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