Resilience in families in which a member has been diagnosed with schizophrenia

Bishop, Melanie (2014-04)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The primary aim of this study was to identify family resilience qualities that families use to adapt after a member has been diagnosed with schizophrenia. Family resilience refers to the family’s ability to adjust and adapt after a crisis. A secondary aim of this study was to determine whether there are significant differences between groups with regard to biographical variables (i.e. relationship to the ill member, home language, racial groups, family structure, and annual household income) and potential resilience variables. The primary theory utilised in this study was proposed by McCubbin and McCubbin (1996a), namely the Resiliency Model of Family Stress, Adjustment and Adaptation, and the secondary theory utilised is the Family Resilience Framework described by Walsh (2012). Qualitative and quantitative data were collected and analysed in order to answer the research question. Data were collected from 51 participants, who represented 42 families. Families were recruited from three support groups within the Western Cape, South Africa. Qualitative data were obtained through an open-ended question in which the participant was asked to indicate the strengths and resources used by the family to adapt after a member had been diagnosed with schizophrenia. Resilience qualities within the qualitative data were identified through a process of thematic theme analysis. Quantitative data were collected using seven self-report questionnaires, which collectively gave an indication of possible family resilience qualities within the family. Quantitative data were analysed using a mixed model repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), Pearson’s product-moment correlations, and a bestsubset regression analysis. Ten statistically significant correlations were found between independent variables and family adaptation. Nine of these variables had a significant positive correlation with family adaptation, namely family income; the degree to which the family finds support in their community; special events and family time; the style of communication during crises; positive communication patterns during crises; family hardiness; the ability of the family to work together and their internal strengths; positive reframing and ability to learn; and the internal locus of control within families. Only one negative correlation with family adaptation was found, namely incendiary communication during times of crisis. The quantitative results were compared with the qualitative themes, and additional findings from the qualitative data were reported. An additional theme that emerged from the qualitative analyses was factors relating to the diagnosed family member, and a subtheme, namely passive appraisal of a crisis. Differences were also found between groups with regard to the measured variables. It is evident from the findings that the identified qualities and resources may be used in interventions to strengthen other families in which a member has been diagnosed with schizophrenia.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die primêre doel van hierdie studie was om gesinsveerkragtigheidskenmerke te identifiseer wat gesinne gebruik om aan te pas nadat ’n gesinslid met skisofrenie gediagnoseer is. Gesinsveerkragtigheid verwys na die gesin se vermoë om verstellings te maak en aan te pas ná ’n krisis. ’n Sekondêre doelstelling van hierdie studie was om vas te stel of daar beduidende verskille tussen groepe is ten opsigte van biografiese veranderlikes (verhouding met gediagnoseerder lid, huistaal, ras, gesinstruktuur, en jaarlikse huishoudelike inkomste) en potensiële veerkragtigheidsveranderlikes. Die primêre teorie onderliggend aan hierdie studie is dié van McCubbin en McCubbin (1996a), naamlik die “Resiliency Model of Family Stress, Adjustment and Adaptation”. Die sekondêre teorie wat gebruik is, is die “Family Resilience Framework” beskryf deur Walsh (2012). Kwalitatiewe en kwantitatiewe data is ingesamel en ontleed ten einde die navorsingsvraag te beantwoord. Data is vanaf 51 deelnemers wat 42 gesinne verteenwoordig het, ingesamel. Gesinne is verkry by drie ondersteuningsgroepe in die Wes-Kaap, Suid-Afrika. Kwalitatiewe data is met ’n oop-einde vraag ingesamel waarin die deelnemende gesinslid gevra is om in sy/haar eie woorde te beskryf watter hulpbronne/kwaliteite/eienskappe die gesin as ’n eenheid gebruik het om aan te pas nadat die lid met skisofrenie gediagnoseer is. Veerkragtigheidseienskappe in die kwalitatiewe data is deur ’n proses van tematiese tema-ontleding geïdentifiseer. Kwantitatiewe data is met behulp van sewe self-rapporteringsvraelyste ingesamel wat gesamentlik ’n aanduiding verskaf van moontlike gesinsveerkragtigheidseienskappe. Kwantitatiewe data is met behulp van gemengde-model herhaalde metings variansieontleding (ANOVA), Pearson produkmomentkorrelasies, en beste-substel regressieontledings ontleed. Tien statisties beduidende korrelasies is tussen onafhanklike veranderlikes en gesinsaanpasbaarheid gevind. Nege van hierdie veranderlikes het ’n positiewe korrelasie met gesinsaanpasbaarheid gehad, naamlik gesinsinkomste; die mate waartoe gesinne ondersteuning van hul gemeenskap kry; spesiale geleenthede en gesinstyd; die kommunikasiestyl tydens ’n krisis; positiewe kommunikasie-patrone tydens ’n krisis; gesinsgehardheid; die vermoë van die gesin om saam te werk en hulle interne sterktes; positiewe herformulering en die vermoë om te leer; en ’n interne lokus van kontrole binne die gesin. Slegs een negatiewe korrelasie met gesinsaanpasbaarheid is gevind, naamlik die gebruik van opruiende kommunikasie. Die kwanitatiewe resultate is met die kwalitatiewe temas vergelyk en bykomende bevindinge vanuit die kwalitatiewe data is gerapporteer. ’n Bykomende tema wat in die kwalitatiewe ontledings na vore gekom het, is kenmerke van die gediagnoseerde gesinslid, asook ’n subtema, naamlik passiewe aanvaarding van ’n krisis. Verskille tussen groepe is ook vir die gemete veranderlikes gevind. Dit volg uit die bevindinge dat die geïdentifiseerde kenmerke en hulpbronne in intervensies gebruik kan word om ander gesinne waarin ’n lid met skisofrenie gediagnoseer is, te versterk.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/86338
This item appears in the following collections: