Diptera breeding in poultry manure and the abiotic factors affecting their numbers
Musca domestica L., Fannia canicularis (L.) and Leptocera sp. larvae were of the most common dipterans in poultry manure in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. The first and second instar larvae of M. domestica and F. canicularis were numerous in the first three weeks post-cleanout. The peak numbers of these instars occurred in summer and winter, respectively. The highest numbers of larvae of M. domestica, F. canicularis and Leptocera sp. were found at 65-80%, 70-80% and 75-80% manure moisture levels, respectively. Fly numbers would therefore be reduced if manure moisture content could be maintained above or below these levels. The majority of M. domestica, F. canicularis and Leptocera sp. first and second instar larvae were recovered where manure temperatures were 20-26°C, 18-22®C and 14-18°C, respectively.