Description of adult and immature females of six mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) found on citrus in South Africa
Mealybugs are one of the major constraining factors in South African citrus fruit exports to foreign markets. An identification guide is required as an aid to field and laboratory identification of the species and to help reduce the rejection rate of exported fruits during foreign quarantine inspections. Adult and immature females of the striped mealybug Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), the spherical mealybug Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead), the oleander mealybug Paracoccus burnerae (Brain), the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso), the citrophilous mealybug Pseudococcus calceolariae (Maskell) and the longtailed mealybug Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti) are described and illustrated from field-collected and slide-mounted specimens. A diagnostic key to the different stages and species is provided. Morphometric characteristics useful for separating the different developmental stages of each species and the six species are discussed.