The effect of minimalist shoe training on the neuromuscular control of recreational distance runners

Dreyer, Sule (2014-04)

Thesis (MScSportSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Neuromuscular control (NMC) plays a critical role in dynamic movement regulation such as running (Nyland et al., 2011) and injury prevention (Hübcher et al., 2010). This experimental study set out to determine whether an eight-week minimalist shoe training program influences NMC in recreational distance runners. Eleven experimental (EXP) (5 women; 6 men) (age 23.4 ± 2.98 yrs; VO2max 43.55 ± 5.04 ml.min-1.kg-1; BMI 22.61 ± 3.08 kg.m2; Training 17 ± 5km.w-1) and 12 control (CON) runners (7 women; 5 men) (age 25.42 ± 5.57 yrs; VO2max 43.67 ± 4.38 ml.min-1.kg-1; BMI 22.38 ± 3.12 kg.m2; Training 18 ± 6km.w-1) randomly completed an eight-week training program in either minimalist shoe (EXP) or their usual trainers (CON). Neuromuscular control components were measured before and after the intervention i.e. postural sway (Balance Biodex®), using the Athletic Single Leg (ASL) and modified Clinical Test of Sensory Integration and Balance (mCTSIB) tests, joint position sense (JPS) using joint angle reproduction tests (Biodex® Isokinetic Dynamometer), frontal and sagittal planes isokinetic strength testing, lower body electromyography (EMG) and kinematic measurements while participants ran on a treadmill. Plantar-dorsiflexion (PF/DF) or inversion eversion (IN/EV) proprioception did not differ between groups (p > 0.05). In selected trials EXP showed less deterioration in IN/ EV foot position error, when compared to CON, with medium to large practical significance. Athletic Single Leg scores for non-dominant (p < 0.01) and dominant M/L (p = 0.05) sway, and dominant overall sway (p = 0.04) improved in CON, with marked differences between genders. Dorsiflexor strength improved for 30∘.sec-1 and 60∘.sec-1speeds in CON (p < 0.01 & p = 0.04, respectively) and in the slower speed for EXP (p = 0.04). Plantar-flexion (PF) strength improved in EXP men (30∘.sec-1 p = 0.02; 60∘.sec-1 p = 0.02), while EXP women demonstrated a 7% deficit. At initial contact PF increased in EXP (8km.h-1 p = 0.01; 10km.h-1 p = 0.01; 12km.h-1 p = 0.01), with women showing a greater change in ankle angle (8km.h-1 p = 0.03; 10km.h-1 p = 0.02; 12km.h-1 p = 0.01) compared to men (8km.h-1 p = 0.05; 10km.h-1 p = 0.06; 12km.h-1 p = 0.05). Greater knee flexion (8km.h-1 ES = 0.64; 10km.h-1 ES = 0.49; 12 km.h-1 ES = 0.51) in EXP. Plantar-flexor pre-activation improved in EXP women, while co-activation improved in EXP men and total activation improved in both genders.Results suggest that women may require more time to transition into minimalist shoes. While minimalist shoes may moderately reduce foot position error, improve strength and muscle activation patterns, excessive plantar flexor muscle damage may reduce strength and muscle spindle proprioceptive feedback.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Neuromuskulêre beheer (NMC) speel ‘n kritieke rol in dinamiese beweginsregulasie, soos met hardloop (Nyland et al., 2011) en beseringsvoorkoming (Hübscher et al., 2010). Hierdie eksperimentele studie het uit gesit om te bepaal of ‘n agt-week minimalistiese skoen oefenprogram NMB kan beïnvloed in rekreasie langafstand atlete. Elf eksperimentele (EXP) (5 vrouens, 6 mans) (ouderdom 23.4 ± 2.98 jr; VO2maks 43.55 ± 5.04 ml.min-1.kg-1; BMI 22.61 ± 3.08 kg.m2; Oefening 17 ± 5km.w-1) en twaalf kontrole (CON) hardlopers (7 vrouens, 5 mans) (ouderdom 25.42 ± 5.57; VO2maks 43.67 ± 4.38 ml.min-1.kg-1; BMI 22.38 ± 3.12 kg.m2; Oefening 18 ± 6 km.w-1) het lukraak ‘n agt-week oefenprogram voltooi, óf in minimalistiese skoene (EXP) of in hul gewone hardlooptekkies (CON). Neuromuskulêre beheer komponente was gemeet voor en na die intervensie i. e. posturale wieg (Balans Biodex®), met gebruik van Atletiese Enkelbeentoets (ASL) en die gemodifiseerde Kliniese Toets van Sensoriese Integrasie en Balans (mCTSIB), gewrigs posisie bewustheid (Biodex® Isokinetiese Dinamometer), frontale en sagitalle vlak isokinetiese kragtoetsing, onderlyf elektromiografie (EMG) en biomeganiese metings terwyl deelnemers op ‘n trapmeul gehardloop het. Plantaar dorsifleksie (PF/DF) of inversie eversie (IN/EV) propriosepsie het nie verskil tussen groepe nie (p > 0.05). In selektiewe proewe het EXP IN/ EV ‘n verminderde afname gehad in foutiewe voet posisieplasings, in vergelyking met CON, terwyl medium na groot praktiese betekenisvolle verskille. . Atleet enkel been toets tellings vir nie-dominant (p=0.001) en dominante M/L (p = 0.05) wieg, en dominant algehele wieg (p = 0.04) het verbeter in CON, met gemerkte verskille tussen geslagte. Dorsifleksor krag het verbeter vir 30∘.sec-1 en 60∘.sec-1spoed in CON (p = 0.01 en p = 0.04, onderskeidelik) en in die stadiger spoed vir EXP (p = 0.04). Plantaarfleksie (PF) krag het verbeter in EXP mans (30∘.sek-1 p = 0.02; 60∘.sek-1 p = 0.02), terwyl EXP vrouens ‘n 7% tekort gedemonstreer het. By initïele kontak het PF toegeneem in EXP (8km.h-1 p = 0.01; 10km.h-1 p = 0.01; 12km.h-1 p = 0.01), met vrouens wat ‘n groter verandering getoon het (8km.h-1 p = 0.03; 10km.h-1 p = 0.02; 12km.h-1 p = 0.01), in vergelyking met mans (8km.h-1 p = 0.05; 10km.h-1 p = 0.06; 12km.h-1 p = 0.05). Groter kniefleksie (8km.h-1 ES = 0.64; 10km.h-1 ES = 0.49; 12 km.h-1 ES = 0.51) in EXP. Plantaarfleksie pre-aktivering het verbeter in EXP vrouens, terwyl ko-aktivering verbeter het in EXP mans, en totale aktivering verbeter het in beide geslagte.Hierdie resultate stel voor dat vrouens moontlik meer tyd sal vereis om na minimalistiese skoene oor te skakel. Terwyl minimalistiese skoene matige verbetering in foutiewe voetposisieplasing, verbeterde krag en spieraktiveringspatrone kan veroorsaak, kan oormatige plantaarfleksie spierskade krag en spierspoel proprioseptiewe terugvoer ook verminder.

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