Effect of paper mill ash on properties of expansive soils

Byiringiro, Alfred (2014-04)

Thesis (MEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Expansive soils, one of the problematic soils, are encountered on all continents with exception of polar continents. Problems caused by their heaving and shrinking behaviour, particularly to light structures, have been reported from different countries to place large financial burden on developers. For this reason, many techniques have been developed and applied to prevent and/or remediate the damage caused by these soils. Soil stabilization with traditional chemical additives has been applied successfully since ancient times. In addition to traditional additives such as lime, cement, fly ash, etc., some non-traditional additives, such as polymer based products, salts, etc. have been used effectively for soil treatment. On the other hand, industries are increasingly challenged by waste management in an acceptable and environmentally friendly manner. In this regard, a number of researches have been done on using industrial waste for soil improvement purposes. The study and understanding of basic reactions involved in lime-soil stabilization persuaded many researchers to study the applicability of lime-rich products for soil treatment. Studies conducted by Khalid et al. (2012); Muchizuki et al. (2004) and Thacker (2012) showed that lime-rich products such as pulp fly and bottom ashes and CaO by-products, can be applied for soil stabilization. This research was thus performed to investigate the effect of lime-rich paper mill waste ash on expansive soil properties. Two commonly listed soil engineering properties namely volume change and strength were investigated. Soil strength was examined in terms of unconfined compressive strength (UCS), due to its correlations with a number of other soil properties, and the volume change in terms of free swell and swelling pressure. In addition to these two engineering properties, dry density and moisture content were also studied due to their involvement in structural design, as well as gradation, Atterberg limits and California Bearing Ratio (CBR). The choice of these properties was also influenced by the availability of a standard (ASTM D4609-08) specifically developed to assess the effectiveness of admixtures for soil stabilization. Two main types of materials were used namely three clay materials and paper mill ash. According to the index properties, commonly used for expansive soil classification, three clays were classified into low, medium and high degrees of potential expansiveness. The ash results from the combustion of paper mill sludge, sawdust, bark, coal ash and bituminous coal in a multi-fuel boiler for the purpose of electricity and steam production. The tests mentioned above were conducted on both untreated and treated clays and the results were compared. Since the study was carried out on this material based on the fact that it contains lime, the procedure applied for lime-soil stabilization was considered. In general, it was observed that ash-soil treatment has a number of effects similar to lime-treatment and almost all studied properties were enhanced for all clays. It can thus be concluded that the paper mill ash from a multi-fuel boiler can be efficiently used for expansive soil treatment. For optimum use of this material for expansive soil treatment, more tests and further researches have been recommended.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Uitsettende gronde, een van die probleemtipe-gronde, kom op alle kontinente voor, behalwe die twee poolkontinente. Probleme veroorsaak deur uitswellende en inkrimpende gedrag van hierdie gronde, veral finansiële onkostes van ligte strukture is al in baie lande aangemeld. Vir hierdie rede is baie tegnieke ontwikkel en toegepas om skade wat deur hierdie tipe gronde veroorsaak is, te voorkom en/of herstel. Hierdie tegnieke sluit grondstabilisasie met chemiese bymengsels in, veral tradisionele bymengsels, wat met groot sukses in die verre verlede toegepas en na moderne tye oorgedra is. Bykomend tot tradisionele bymengsels soos kalk, sement, vlieg-as ensovoorts is ʼn aantal nie-tradisionele bymiddels soos polimeergebaseerde produkte, soute en ander produkte ontwikkel vir grondstabilisasie. Aan die ander kant raak industrieë toenemend daarmee gemoeid om afvalstowwe op ʼn aanvaarbare en omgewingsvriendelike wyse te bestuur. Op hierdie gebied is ʼn aantal navorsingsprojekte al uitgevoer om industriële afval vir grondverbetering te gebruik en sodoende die las op nywerhede te verlig. Navorsing is onderneem om die basiese reaksies wat onstaan tydens stabilisasie van grond met tradisionele en moderne middels te bepaal en om die geskiktheid van kalkryke produkte vir grondstabilisasie te ondersoek. Baie navorsing is uitgevoer wat aangetoon het dat kalkhoudende produkte soos pulp vlieg- en oondresidu-as, asook CaO neweprodukte gebruik kan word vir stabilisasie. Gebaseer hierop is hierdie projek onderneem om die effek van papiermeulas, verkry deur die verbranding in ʼn veelvuldige brandstof-stoomketel, op die gedrag van uitsettende grond te ondersoek. Tydens hierdie studie is twee algemene ingenieurseienskappe van grond, naamlik sterkte en volumeverandering ondersoek. Grondsterkte is geëvalueer in terme van eenassige druksterkte (EDS) as gevolg van ? deur middel van die korrelasie met ʼn aantal ander grondeienskappe, en die volumeverandering in terme van vry-swel en sweldruk. Addisioneel tot hierdie twee grondeienskappe is droë digtheid en waterinhoud ook bestudeer aangesien beide in struktuurontwerp betrokke is. Verdere eienskappe wat ondersoek is, is gradering, Atterberggrense en Kaliforniese drakragverhouding (KDV). Die keuse van hierdie eienskappe is beïnvloed deur die beskikbaarheid van ʼn toetsstandaard (ASTM D4609-08) wat spesifiek ontwikkel is om die effektiwiteit van bymengsels vir grondstabilisasie te evalueer. Hierdie standaard is deurgaans as verwysing tydens die projek gebruik. Daar is waargeneem dat as-behandeling van grond ʼn aantal effekte het soortgelyk aan kalkbehandeling, met die uitsondering van die droë digtheid en optimum waterinhoud van een van die gronde wat getoets is. Byna al die eienskappe wat ondersoek is, soos EDS, KDV, ensovoorts, is verbeter behalwe in die geval van die eerste klei waarvan die plastisiteitsindeks verhoog het en die grond meer plasties geraak het. Daar kan dus afgelei word dat papiermeule-as vanaf ʼn stoomketel wat veelvuldige tipes brandstof gebruik geskik is vir die behandeling van uitsettende grond. Om die optimumgebruik van hierdie materiaal vir die stabilisasie van swellende klei te bepaal, is meer toetse en projekte nodig.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/86287
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