Knowledge, attitude and practices of prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV(PMTCT) among women of child bearing age, in Karu Village, Abuja, Nigeria

Mamudu, Rashidat Amanosi (2014-04)

Thesis (MPhil)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: An estimated 34 million people worldwide are infected with HIV with 52% of them being women (UNAIDS, 2011), of this figure, an estimated 3.4 million are said to be children below the age of 15years. Sub Saharan Africa accounts for up to 90% of this burden in children. Nigeria, the most populous nation is Saharan African still contributes up to 30% of the global burden of mother to child transmission of HIV which is a major source of infection in children. According to the Federal ministry of health 2010 ANC survey report, the country has a prevalence of 4.1%. The Federal Capital Territory (FCT) where Karu village is located ranked 5th among the 36 states and Federal capital territory in Nigeria with a prevalence of 8.7%. Urban prevalence is 8.6% while the rural prevalence is 8.2%. An exploratory descriptive study was conducted among women of child bearing age (18 to 49years) living in Karu village, Abuja, FCT, North central Nigeria. A semi structured questionnaire designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV was administered by the researcher on 120 women of child bearing age living in Karu village after obtaining their consent. The study received an ethical review and approval from FCT human research ethics committee at the Health Department of the Federal capital development agency and Stellenbosch University, ethic committee. Findings from the 120 women who gave consent to participate showed that 28.33% had sufficient knowledge of how MTCT can occur with 77% having insufficient knowledge of how MTCT occur, 51.67% of them have sufficient knowledge of how PMTCT can be achieved while 48.33% do not. Of the participant surveyed, 89.17% of them have ever been pregnant while 24.17% were pregnant at the time of the survey, the bulk of the participants were between the ages of 18 to 34 with only 22.5% of them within the age of 35 – 49 years. From this study, women in Karu village were identified to have high level of general knowledge regarding MTCT and PMTCT of HIV but in-depth knowledge of both is still insufficient among a large group of women. Health workers and mass media were identified as key sources of information regarding MTCT and PMTCT of HIV and majority of women have favourable attitude towards PMTCT interventions but practices of these interventions is still relatively low.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Ongeveer 34 miljoen mense is wêreldwyd aangetas deur MIV, waarvan 52% vroue is (UNAIDS, 2011). Hiervan is ongeveer 3.4 miljoen na bewering kinders onder die ouderdom van 15 jaar. Tot 90% van hierdie infeksie by kinders kom in sub-Sahara-Afrika voor. Nigerië, die digsbevolkte staat in sub-Sahara-Afrika, dra tot 30% van die globale las van moeder-tot-kind-oordrag van MIV, wat ’n groot bron van infeksie onder kinders is. Volgens die Federale Ministerie van Gesondheid 2010 ANC-opnameverslag het die land ’n voorkomssyfer van 4.1%. Die Federal Capital Territory (FCT), waar die dorp Karu geleë is, is as 5de van die 36 state in Nigerië geklassifiseer met ’n voorkomssyfer van 8.7%. Die stedelike voorkomssyfer is 8.6% teenoor die landelike voorkomssyfer van 8.2%. ’n Ondersoekende, beskrywende studie is uitgevoer onder vroue van vrugbare leeftyd (18 tot 49 jaar) wat in die dorp Karu, Abuja, FCT, Noord-sentrale Nigerië, woon. ’n Halfgestruktureerde vraelys is ontwerp om die kennis, houdings en voorkomingspraktyke van moeder-tot-kind-oordrag (MTCT) van MIV te beoordeel. Dit is deur die navorser toegepas op 120 vroue van vrugbare leeftyd wat in die dorp Karu woon nadat hul toestemming daartoe verkry is. Die studie het ’n etiese oorsig en goedkeuring van die FCT mensenavorsing-etiekkomitee by die Departement van Gesondheid van die federale hoofstad se ontwikkelingsagentskap en die Universiteit Stellenbosch se etiekkomitee ontvang. Bevindings van die 120 vroue wat ingestem het om deel te neem het getoon dat 28.33% toereikende kennis gehad het van hoe MTCT kan voorkom, met 77% wat onvoldoende kennis gehad het van hoe MTCT voorkom. Van hulle het 51.67% genoegsame kennis gehad van hoe PMTCT verkry kan word, terwyl 48.33% nie oor hierdie kennis beskik het nie. Van die deelnemers wat waargeneem is, was 89.17% al swanger, terwyl 24.17% tydens die opname swanger was. Die meerderheid van die deelnemers was tussen 18 en 34 jaar oud, met slegs 22.5% wat in die ouderdomsgroep 35 – 49 jaar geval het. Uit hierdie studie het geblyk dat vroue van die dorp Karu geïdentifiseer is as mense wat ’n hoë vlak van algemene kennis omtrent MTCT en PMTCT van MIV gehad het, maar dieptekennis van albei sake is steeds ontoereikend by ’n groot groep vroue. Gesondheidswerkers en die massamedia is geïdentifiseer as sleutelbronne van kennis oor MTCT en PMTCT van MIV en die meeste vroue het ’n gunstige houding teenoor PMTCT-intervensies, maar die toepassing van hierdie intervensies is nog betreklik laag.

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