Expression and purification of recombinant extracellular proteases originating from non-Saccharomyces yeasts

Theron, Louwrens Wiid (2013-12)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: During wine fermentation, yeasts release extracellular enzymes that significantly impact wine properties. While the extracellular proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been characterised, those of non-Saccharomyces yeasts remain largely unknown. Most of these enzymes break down sugar polymers or catalyse the liberation of glycosidically-bound molecules. Another category of enzymes of oenological interest is represented by acid proteases that are able to prevent or reduce protein haze, as reported in literature, while simultaneously increasing the assimilable nitrogen content of wine. The liberation of amino acids from peptides and proteins that serve as aroma precursors may also have an indirect effect on wine aroma. In a recent study performed at the Institute for Wine Biotechnology (IWBT), the sequences of two aspartic proteases were retrieved from non-Saccharomyces yeast species isolated from South African wines. The genes, MpAPr1 and CaAPr1, were isolated from two non-Saccharomyces species, Metschnikowia pulcherrima IWBT Y1123 and Candida apicola IWBT Y1384, respectively. However, no further characterization was undertaken. This study aimed to clone these two genes into a recombinant bacterial host for expression and purify the corresponding enzymes as a first step toward characterizing their kinetic properties. Considering that some non-Saccharomyces species have been shown to produce more than one acid protease, an additional aim was to identify novel acid proteases within M. pulcherrima IWBT Y1123. Cloning of the genes and transformation of the expression vectors into E. coli were achieved. Optimal conditions for induced expression were established following extensive optimization. Furthermore, while native extraction of the recombinant proteins was unsuccessful, denaturing conditions allowed their recovery, suggesting that the recombinant proteins are encapsulated into inclusion bodies. Recombinant MpAPr1 was purified by using a nickel based column system and mass fingerprinting of the purified enzyme (MpAPr1) confirmed its identity. Purification was followed by refolding experiments, but yielded poor recovery of active enzymes. Unfortunately, recombinant expression of CaAPr1 could not be observed for reasons yet to be elucidated that may include the large sequence dissimilarities between CaAPr1 and MpAPr1. Finally, Southern blot analysis on the genomes of M. pulcherrima IWBT Y1123 and C. apicola IWBT Y1384 revealed that both possess at least one additional protease other than those previously described. Further analysis of the extracellular proteome of M. pulcherrima IWBT Y1123 also confirmed the presence of at least one enzyme able to hydrolyze BSA at a low pH. Unfortunately, mass fingerprinting performed on the entire extracellular proteome and on small groups of proteins thereof did not allow the identification of these enzymes.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Gedurende fermentasie van druiwe sap skei gis ekstrasellulêre ensieme af wat ‘n aanmerklike impak op wyn eienskappe het. Terwyl die ekstrasellulêre proteïene vanaf Saccharomyces cerevisiae al gekarakteriseer is, bly die van nie-Saccharomyces spesies grootliks onbekend. Meeste van hierdie ensieme breek suiker polimere af of kataliseer die vrystelling van glikosiediese verbonde molekules. ‘n Ander klas van ensieme wat van belang is vir oenologie word voorgestel deur proteases wat in staat is daartoe om proteïenewaas te verminder, soos voorheen geraporteer is in literatuur, terwyl dit terselfde tyd die assimileerbare stikstof inhoud kan vermeerder. Die vrystelling van aminosure vanaf peptiede en/of proteïene wat as aroma voorlopers dien mag ook ‘n indirekte effek op die wyn se aroma profiel hê. In ‘n onlangse studie wat uitgevoer is by die Instituut vir Wynbiotegnologie (IWBT) was die volgordes van twee aspartiese proteases bepaal vanaf twee nie-Saccharomyces gis spesies wat geisoleer was uit Suid-Afrikaanse wyne. Die gene MpAPr1 en CaAPr1, was afsonderlik geisoleer vanuit twee nie- Saccharomyces giste, Metschnikowia pulcherrima IWBT Y1123 en Candida apicola IWBT Y1384. Egter was daar geen verder karakterisering van hierdie ensieme nie. Die doel van hierdie studie is om die bogenoemde gene in ‘n rekombinante bakteriese gasheer te kloneer vir uitdrukking en suiwering as ‘n eerste stap tot karakterisering van hul kinetiese eienskappe. Om in ag te neem dat sommige nie-Saccharomyces spesies meer as een protease produseer was ‘n aditionele mikpunt om vir nuwe suur proteases te soek binne M. pulcherrima IWBT Y1123. Klonering van hierdie gene en transformasie van die uitdrukkings vektore in E. coli was suksesvol. Optimale kondisies vir die induksie van ekspressie was bevestig na omvattende optimalisering. Verder, terwyl inheemse ekstraksie van die rekombinante proteïene onsuksesvol was, het denatureerende kondisies toegelaat vir suksesvolle ekstraksie, wat voorgestel het dat die rekombinante proteïene geinkapsileer word in inklusie liggame. Rekombinante MpAPr1 was gesuiwer deur gebruik te maak van ‘n niekel gebaseerde kolom sisteem en massa petied fingerafdrukke van die gesuiwerde ensiem (MpAPr1) het die identiteit bevestig. Suiwering was gevolg deur hervouing eksperimente, maar het swak opbrengste gelewer van die aktiewe ensiem. Ongelukkig kon die rekombinante ekspressie van CaAPr1 nie gevisualiseer word nie vir redes wat nog bevestig moet word, maar wat mag behels dat daar groot volgorde veskille tussen MpAPr1 en CaAPr1 kan wees. Uiteindelik was Southern blot hibridiseering analises uitgevoer op die genome van albei M. pulcherrima IWBT Y1123 en C. apicola IWBT Y1384 wat voorgestel het dat albei ten minste een addisionele protease, anders as die wat voorheen geidentifiseer was, bevat. Verder analiese van die ekstrasellulêre proteoom van M. pulcherrima IWBT Y1123 het ook die teenwoordigheid van ten minste een ensiem bevestig wat die vermoë het om BSA te hidroliseer by ‘n lae pH. Ongelukkig het massa peptied vingerafdrukbepaling wat uitgevoer was op die hele ekstrasellulêre proteoom en op klein groepe protein nie identifikasie van hierdie ensieme bevestig nie.

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