Die omskakeling van werklikewereld-take na pedagogiese take ten einde 'n taakgebaseerde sillabus te ontwerp

Adendorff, Elbie (2012-12)

The original publication is available at http://www.litnet.co.za/

Article

OPSOMMING: Die doel van die artikel is om te verduidelik hoe werklikewêreld-take binne die taakgebaseerde sillabus na klaskamertake omgeskakel word. Dit is ’n opvolgartikel van twee artikels wat in LitNet Akademies gepubliseer is – sien Adendorff (2010 en 2012b). Die eerste artikel het gekyk na die rol van behoefte-analises, terwyl die tweede artikel die multiperspektiefbenadering tot taakkompleksiteit in ’n taakgebaseerde sillabus bespreek het. Een van die vraagstukke en probleme in verband met die taakgebaseerde teorie is dat dit lyk soos die lukrake kies van take wat niks met mekaar te doen het nie. ’n Besluit oor die eenhede van klaskamer-aktiwiteite en die volgorde waarin hulle uitgevoer moet word, vorm die basis van sillabusontwerp. Sillabus is ’n breë en komplekse begrip en word somtyds as sinoniem vir kurrikulum gebruik. Volgens Nunan (2004:216) is ’n sillabus die subkomponent van ’n kurrikulum, wat die taalinhoude spesifiseer en orden. Nunan (2004:25) verskaf ’n diagrammatiese raamwerk wat verduidelik hoe die omskakeling van teikentake na pedagogiese take plaasvind voordat by taakontwerp uitgekom word. Die ESOHK-model (oftewel die Eenvoudige Stabiele Outomatiserende Herstruktureringskompleksiteitsmodel – my vertaling vir Simple Stable Automatisation Restructuring Complexity Model, of SSARC Model) van Robinson (2010) waarin hy hierdie proses van omskakeling uiteensit, is gebruik in die ontwerp van ’n taakgebaseerde sillabus vir kampuskommunikasie. Voorbeelde van pedagogiese take vir klaskamergebruik word gegee. Benewens die gradering en ordening van take met die oog op ’n taakgebaseerde sillabus is daar verder na die metodologiese prosedure vir die toepassing daarvan in die klaskamer gekyk. Willis (1996:38) verskaf ’n bruikbare raamwerk wat toegepas is in die ontwerp van taakreekse of individuele take. Een van die ander vraagstukke binne die taakgebaseerde benadering is die plek en aard van grammatika in die sillabus. In die artikel sal hierna gekyk word met ’n voorkeur aan gebruik van fokus op vorm bo fokus op vorme. Voorbeelde van gefokusde en ongefokusde pedagogiese take word verskaf.

ABSTRACT: Task-based language teaching is an approach to language teaching which is organised around tasks and not language structures. To design a task-based syllabus certain design procedures are preferred by course and syllabus designers. The starting point is an assessment of learners’ needs and a selection of appropriate topics, as well as what the learners want to do with the language. Secondly, the target tasks must be specified by finding or creating relevant texts to help build up the task sequences. When this has been achieved it must be organised into a syllabus by assessing the levels of difficulty of the texts. Teaching materials must be refined to further determine the task sequencing of the syllabus. Finally, language activities for focus on form must be designed. The aim of this article is to explain how real-world tasks can be converted into pedagogic tasks in a task-based syllabus. It is a follow-up article to two articles published in LitNet Akademies – see Adendorff (2010 and 2012b). The first article focused on the role of needs analysis, while the second article discussed a multi-perspective approach to task complexity in a task-based syllabus. One of the questions and potential problems within the task-based theory is that it appears as if tasks are randomly selected for a syllabus with no ties to connect them. A decision on the units for classroom activity and the sequence in which they must be performed forms the basis for syllabus design. Nunan (2004:25) links his task units through the principle of task chaining. On the broader syllabus level he combines his tasks by theme/topic or content by looking at the macro-functions, micro-functions and grammatical elements of each theme or topic. To choose thematic content Ellis (2003:218) emphasises that the purposes of communication are important and makes use of a theme generator which is organised in terms of thematic areas that are close to the language learner for use in general language courses. Syllabus is a broad and complex concept and is often used as a synonym for curriculum. According to Nunan (2004:216) a syllabus is the subcomponent of a curriculum which specifies and sequences language content, while Robinson (2010:244) explains that a syllabus serve “the external purposes of coordinating practical decisions” in and across classrooms, institutions, local and national sectors and agencies, countries and cultures. Nunan (2004:25) provides a framework to explain how to convert real-world tasks into pedagogic tasks before task design. The starting point is real-world tasks which need to be changed into pedagogic tasks. These pedagogic tasks must then be used as either repetition or activation tasks. In the language exercises the focus is placed on lexical, phonological and grammatical exercises and the communication activities are the middle road between pedagogic tasks and language exercises.....

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