Grape seed extract affects adhesion competence and maturation of primary isolated rat myoblasts after contusion injury

Engelbrecht, Lize (2013-03)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Contusion injuries cause significant muscle damage, activating a series of cellular events. Satellite cells (SC), the key role players in muscle regeneration, are activated to proliferate and develop into mature myoblasts, which could fuse to form new myotubes or to repair damaged fibres. Evidence suggests that anti-oxidants, such as those found in grape seed extract (GSE), enhance repair, but their effect on SCs is still unclear. This study aimed to harvest and culture primary rat myoblasts to investigate the effect of chronic in vivo GSE supplementation on SCs following a standardised crush injury. Using a modified pre-plate technique, myoblasts were harvested from rat muscle and then compared with the immortal C2C12 cell line for proliferation and differentiation competence. Several media options were compared: i) DMEM with or without L-glutamine, ii) Ham‘s F10 or iii) DMEM with L-glutamine and Ham‘s F10 combined. Primary myoblasts proliferated and differentiated at a much slower rate than C2C12 cells. The combined media was selected for further use. To investigate the effects of GSE on the recovery, rats were supplemented daily with GSE or placebo 14 days prior to a standardised mass-drop crush injury to the gastrocnemius. SCs were isolated and cultured from uninjured (NI, baseline) and from injured rats 4 hours (4h), 3 days (3d) or 14 days (14d) post-injury. Expression of myogenic proteins Pax7, M-cadherin, MyoD, CD56, desmin and CD34 was determined by flow cytometry. Myoblasts were sorted according to their CD56 and CD34 expression and three sub-sets were collected and re-cultured, namely CD56+/CD34-, CD56-/CD34+ and CD56+/CD34+. After 24 hours, sorted cells were stained for desmin expression. Pax7, M-cadherin and MyoD were present in 100% of isolated cells from all groups confirming their myogenic SC identity. For all groups, desmin was expressed only in ~80% of SCs. Lower adhesion competency in GSE supplemented groups resulted in lower yield obtained for culturing. Expression of CD56 increased significantly 3d post-injury in the placebo group. In contrast, with GSE, CD56 already increased 4h post-injury and decreased again 3d post-injury. Although CD34 expression did not differ dramatically, expression pattern resembled that of CD56. Immunocytochemistry revealed a range in morphology and desmin expression of sorted myoblasts. More myoblasts with high desmin expression were observed in the two CD56+ sub-sets (irrespective of CD34 expression), indicating that CD56 is still expressed in more mature myoblasts. Flow cytometry revealed a population of myoblasts expressing particularly high levels of desmin, primarily in the non-injured baseline GSE group. We hypothesise that this result is an indication of preparedness of myoblasts to respond earlier to injury, enabling quicker repair. This cell population with high desmin content is restored in skeletal muscle after repair (14d), only when supplemented with GSE. In conclusion, GSE attenuated adhesion competence of primary myoblasts in culture, but resulted in earlier maturation of SCs, possibly due to baseline preparedness of myoblasts in uninjured muscle for a quick response. Both reduced adhesion competence and early progression of myoblasts could enhance wound healing in skeletal muscle.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Kneuswonde veroorsaak aansienlike skade aan skeletspier, wat ‘n reeks sellulêre prosesse in werking stel. Satellietselle, die hoofrolspelers tydens spierregenerasie, vermenigvuldig en ontwikkel tot volwasse mioblaste, wat saamsmelt om nuwe spiervesels te vorm. Antioksidante, soos die wat in druiwepit-ekstrak voorkom, bespoedig herstel, maar hul uitwerking op satellietselle is steeds onduidelik. Die doel van hierdie studie was om mioblaste uit rotspiere te isoleer en te kweek om die effek van langdurige in vivo aanvulling van druiwepit-ekstrak op satellietselle na ‘n kneusbesering te bepaal. 'n Aangepaste protokol is gebruik om primêre mioblaste te isoleer, wat daarna met C2C12 selle, ten opsigte van hul vermenigvuldigings- en differensiasievermoë vergelyk is. Verskeie groeimedia is gebruik: i) DMEM met of sonder L-glutamien, ii) Ham F10 en iii) ‘n kombinasie van DMEM, L-glutamien en Ham F10. Primêre mioblaste het stadiger vermenigvuldig en gedifferensieer as C2C12 selle. Die gekombineerde medium is vir verdere gebruik gekies. Om die uitwerking van druiwepit-ekstrak op spierherstel te ondersoek, is rotte vir 14 dae onderwerp aan daaglikse aanvullings van druiwepit-ekstrak of placebo voor ‘n gestandardiseerde kneusbesering aan die gastrocnemius. Satellietselle is geïsoleer vanuit onbeseerde spier (basiskontrole) en vanuit beseerde spier 4 ure (4h), 3 dae (3d) en 14 dae (14d) na die besering. Die uitdrukking van spierverwante proteïene Pax7, M-cadherin, MyoD, CD56, desmin en CD34 is vasgestel met 'n vloeisitometer. Mioblaste is daarna gesorteer op grond van hul CD56- en CD34-uitdrukking. Drie sub-groepe is versamel en verder gekweek, nl. CD56+/CD34-, CD56-/CD34+ en CD56+/CD34+. Na 24 uur is gesorteerde selle gekleur om desmin-uitdrukking te bepaal. Pax7, M-cadherin en MyoD is deur 100% satellietselle in alle groepe uitgedruk, wat hul spierverwante identiteit bevestig, alhoewel slegs 80% selle in alle groepe desmin uitgedruk. Druiwepit-ekstrak het die vermoë van selle om aan plate te heg onderdruk, wat gelei het tot ‘n laer opbrengs van mioblaste. Drie dae na die besering in die placebo groep het die CD56-uitdrukking beduidend toegeneem. In teenstelling hiermee het CD56-uitdrukking in die druiwepit-ekstrak groep 4 ure na die besering beduidend toegeneem en weer afgeneem na 3 dae. Hoewel daar nie sulke dramatiese verskille was tussen groepe ten opsigte van CD34-uitdrukking nie, was daar ‘n soortgelyke tendens as vir CD56-uitdrukking. Immunositochemie het ‘n verskeidenheid van morfologieë en variërende desminvlakke in gesorteerde mioblaste blootgestel. In die twee CD56+ groepe is meer mioblaste wat hoë desmin vlakke uitdruk gevind, wat aandui dat CD56 uitgedruk word deur meer volwasse mioblaste, ongeag van CD34-uitdrukking. Tydens vloeisitometrie is ‘n populasie selle wat hoë desminvlakke uitdruk, hoofsaaklik in die onbeseerde en 14d druiwepit-ekstrak groepe gevind. Dit is ‘n aanduiding dat sommige mioblaste voorbereid is om na 'n besering vinniger te reageer. Na die herstelproses word hierdie groep selle hernu in die teenwoordigheid van druiwepit-ekstrak-aanvulling. Die resultate het gevolglik daartoe gelei dat druiwepit-ekstrak die hegtingsvemoë van mioblaste verlaag, maar dat die aanvulling in vivo tot vroeër ontwikkeling van mioblaste lei, waarskynlik deur satellietselle voor te berei vir 'n vinnige respons na ‘n besering. Beide die onderdrukking van aanhegting aan kultuurplate en die vroeë ontwikkeling van mioblaste, kan die herstel van die skeletspier verbeter.

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