The impact of merger-related employee status on engagement, burnout and counterproductive work behaviour of employees of a South African Commercial Bank

Fourie, Paul (2013-03)

Thesis (MComm)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The banking industry today is seen as a demanding world of work where employees are constantly exposed to high demands and this may have an influence on their work engagement levels and their organisational commitment. It seems that in this industry, employee turnover and absenteeism levels are high, and some employees seem to be de-motivated in their work. The impact of this changing world is most evident in changes in the employment relationship that exist between employer and employee. Employees are expected to give more in terms of time, effort, skills and flexibility, whereas there is a strong perception that employees receive less in terms of career opportunities, lifetime employment and job security. It is in view of the above work complexities that employee engagement has become a focus area, and in particular, to understand the mediating effects of certain psychological conditions in relation to work engagement. Should either employment party not fulfil its contractual terms in any way, the psychological contract will be breached or violated and the employee might attempt to balance the situation by reducing his or her job efforts and making use of various counterproductive work behaviours. Transformation or change of the working circumstances, such as during or after mergers, seem to present a serious challenge to the employment relationship and the prevailing levels of job satisfaction, organisational commitment and productivity. The research question for this study was: “To investigate whether differential exposure of employees of a retail bank to change-related stressors is associated with different configurations of perceived job demands and job resources, affective states, psychological contract, job engagement, burnout and counterproductive work behaviour, and to study the relationships between these variables with the view to understanding the development of the job engagement, burnout and performance-related behaviours of these employees”. This study utilised a quantitative descriptive research design to analyse the data using statistical procedures. All the data was statistical in nature. The sample (n = 300) comprised of employees of three main levels on the organigram such as, team leaders, team managers and employees, from the Regional Head Office in Pretoria. The primary research tool utilised to conduct the study was a self-compiled questionnaire. This was hand delivered and collected from all respondents. The six questionnaires constituting the composite questionnaire were: the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-GS), Counterproductive workbehaviour Inventory (CWB), Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), the Job Characteristics Inventory (JCI), Psychological Contract Inventory (PCI) and the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS). The descriptive statistics reflected a majority of participants had been working for 1 to 4 years (34%) and 5 to 9 years (33%). The largest percentages of participants (74%) were team members while other participants were defined as team leaders (22%) and team managers (4%). The majority of these participants (59%) were also appointed prior to the merger while the median was calculated at 3 years for the amount of years the participants have remained in their current job band (salary structure). A very high percentage of participants (82%) did not manage people directly nor indirectly (83%). It was found that an inter-correlation existed between the demographic variables and the psychological constructs, confirming that the number of years employed was associated with a lower likelihood of psychological withdrawal. While the years of employment in the same position related positively with absorption, and negatively with perceived job resources, the level of abuse experienced, showed a positive association with the degree of psychological contract adherence by the employee and a negative correlation with the extent of perceived contract violation. Evidence was also found for the moderating effect of work engagement in the relationship between well-being and work engagement and between work engagement and some of the counterproductive work behaviour dimensions. Evidence also revealed that mental well-being was experienced some of the time and counterproductive work behaviour almost never. The higher burnout scores, coupled with the simultaneous higher level of work engagement could possibly be viewed as an exploitable factor. The limitations of the current study and recommendations for organisations are discussed. This study highlights the fact that virtually all the comparisons between the pre-merger appointees and the post-merger appointees were insignificant. Burnout was however much more evident with the post-merger group. Employee or employer obligations towards the respondents were also viewed as insignificant, irrespective of the differences in psychological contract each employee experiences.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die banksektor word vandag gesien as 'n veeleisende werksomgewing waar werknemers konstant blootgestel word aan hoë werkseise. Dit kan dalk 'n invloed hê op hul werksbegeestering en hul organisasieverbondenheid. Dit blyk dat hierdie industrie hoë vlakke van werknemeromset en afwesigheid ervaar en dat sommige werknemers gedemotiveerd is in hul werk. Die uitwerking van die veranderende werksplek is veral sigbaar in die verandering van die diensverhouding tussen werkgewer en werknemer. Van werknemers word verwag om al hoe meer opofferinge te maak in terme van hulle tyd, insette, vaardighede en aanpasbaarheid, terwyl daar ‘n persepsie bestaan dat hulle al hoe minder ontvang in terme van loopbaanontwikkeling, lewenslange indiensneming en werksekuriteit. Dit is binne die konteks van die waargenome kompleksiteit binne die werksplek dat werksbegeestering 'n fokusarea geword het,en in die besonder om begrip te ontwikkel vir die mediërende effek van sekere sielkundige kondisies in verhouding tot werksbegeestering. Sou enige van die partye nie hul kontraktuele verpligtinge in enige opsig nakom nie, sal dit ‘n verbreking of skending van die sielkundige kontrak tot gevolg hê en mag die werknemer poog om die situasie te balanseer deur sy of haar insette te verminder en verskeie kontraproduktiewe vorme van werksgedrag tegebruik. Transformasie van, of verandering in werksomstandighede, soos tydens of nasamesmeltings, skyn ‘n ernstige uitdaging te bied vir die heersende vlak van werks tevredenheid, organisasieverbondenheid en produktiwiteit. Die navorsingsvraag virdie studie was: “Om ondersoek in te stel of verskillende tipes blootstelling van werknemers van ‘n kommersiële bank aan veranderingsverwante stressors geassosieer word met verskillende konfigurasies van werkseise en werkshulpbronne,affektiewe toestande, die sielkundige kontrak, werksbegeestering, uitbranding en kontraproduktiewe werksgedrag, metdie oogmerk om die verhouding tussen die veranderlikes te bestudeer met die doel om die ontwikkeling van die werksbegeestering, uitbranding en prestasiegerigte gedrag van daardie werknemers te verstaan”. Die studie het gebruik gemaak van ‘n kwantitatiewe navorsingsontwerp om alle data wat deur statistiese prosedures versamel word te ontleed. Die steekproef (n=300) bestaan uit 3 van die vernaamste vlakke op die organigram naamlik, spanleiers, spanbestuurders en werknemers van die streekshoofkantoor in Pretoria. ‘n Self-saamgesteldevraelys, wat per hand uitgedeel en versamel is, is gebruik in die studie. Die ses individuelevraelyste waaruit die vraelys bestaan het,sluit die volgende in: dieMaslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-GS), Counterproductive workbehaviour Inventory (CWB), Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), die Job Characteristics Inventory (JCI), Psychological Contract Inventory (PCI) en die Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS). Die beskrywende statistiek reflekteer ‘n meerderheid van die respondent wat werkend is tussen 1 tot 4 jaar (34%) and 5 tot 9 jaar (33%). Die grootste persentasie van respondente (74%) was spanlede, terwyl die ander gedeelte van respondente verdeel is as spanleiers (22%) and spanbestuurders (4%). Die meerderheid van respondente (59%) was ook voor die samesmelting van die bank groep aangestel terwyl die mediaan bereken was op 3 jaar vir die hoeveelheid diensjare wat elke werknemer in hulle huidige posvlak was. ‘n Baie hoë persentasie van respondente (82%) het glad nie ondergeskiktes direk of indirek (83%) bestuur nie. Daar is bevind dat ‘n inter-korrelasie bestaan tussen demografiese veranderlikes en die sielkundige samestelling, wat weer bevestig dat die aantal jare wat individue in diens was, geassossieer word met die moontlikheid van ‘n lae psigologiese onttrekking. Terwyl die hoeveelheid diensjare in dieselfde pos posisie positief verbind word met absorpsie en negatief verbind word met waarneembare werkshulpbronne, word die vlak van wantoestand wat ervaar word, positief verband met die graad van nakoming van die sielkundige kontrak by werknemers en ‘n negatiewe korrelasie met waarneembare kontrakbreuk. Bewyse was ook gevind vir die modererings effek op werksbegeestering in die verhouding tussen psigologiese welstand en werksbegeestering en tussen werksbegeestering en somige dimensies van teenproduktiewe gedrag. Bewyse het getoon dat psigologiese welstand ook somtyds ervaar was, terwyl teenproduktiewe gedrag amper nooit ervaar was nie. ‘n Hoë uitbranding telling, gelyktydig gekoppel aan hoë vlakke van werksbegeestering kan moontlik beskou word as ‘n ontginbare faktor. Die beperkinge op die huidige studie en aanbevelings vir die organisaie is ook bespreek. Dié studie beklemtoon ook die feit dat al die vergelykings tussen pre-samesmelting aanstellings en post-samesmelting aanstellings totaal onbeduidend was. Uitbranding was baie meerduidelik opsigtelik onder die post-samesmelting groep. Werknemer of werkgewer verpligtinge teenoor die respondente was ook gesien as onbeduidend, ongeag van die verskille in die sielkundige kontrak wat deur elke werknemer ervaar word.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/80341
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