A retrospective study of the clinical management and treatment outcomes of patients established on antiretroviral therapy who are newly diagnosed with tuberculosis in the public sector, KwaZulu-Natal

Veerasami, Sowbagium (2013-03)

Thesis (MCurr)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Taking into consideration the long duration of standard treatment for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB), the high prevalence of HIV co-infection and the growing prevalence of drug-resistant TB, there is an urgent need for improved treatment approaches for TB and HIV. However, there is inadequate information regarding the burden being placed on the Department of Health (DOH) systems by the current treatment of patients established on Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) who are newly diagnosed with TB, and by their clinical management. The aim of the study was to determine what proportion of patients established on ART were newly diagnosed with TB, and what their clinical and treatment outcomes were in different public sector settings in the eThekwini Region, KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). Approval for the study was obtained from the Human Research Committee of Stellenbosch University and from the Biomedical Research Committee, KZN. The study used a retrospective, quantitative, cohort technique at both TB and ART clinics at three sites in the eThekwini region, KZN. These sites were DOH clinics and were selected as they all had a TB clinic and a DOH-registered ART clinic. The study focused on a period of one year prior to a patient established on ART developed TB. The study population comprised all TB patients who attended the selected DOH clinics. A data collection tool was developed and pilot-tested. A small sample of patient files (n=15, representing 2% of the study population) was randomly selected; five from each site. The files and data were excluded from the main study. A total of 1824 files (579 from the TB clinics and 1245 from the ART clinics) were reviewed. The data were captured into an electronic database (EpiData Version 3.3) and analyzed using STATA (Version 11.0) with the assistance of a statistician. The findings show that of the study sample from the TB clinics (N=579), 78% (454/579) were newly diagnosed with TB. Of the new TB cases, 90% (409/454) had pulmonary TB and 71% (413/579) were HIV-positive. Nearly 50% (68/137) of the patients had commenced ART prior to TB diagnosis and treatment, and 14% (19/137) had commenced ART after TB. Of those who commenced ART prior to TB diagnosis and treatment, 29% (20/68) had commenced ART more than three months prior to acquiring TB. The findings from the ART clinics show that of the files (N=1245) reviewed, 40% (501/1245) had TB, and of these 8% (42/501) developed TB after three months or more of ART. Missing data in the patient medical files was a major challenge. The lack of recorded data about ART in the TB clinics and about TB in the ART clinics suggests suboptimal clinical management and poor integration of HIV and TB services. It was therefore not possible to derive a combined HIV-TB outcome measure. Recommendations to promote and implement the integration of TB and HIV services included policy changes and implementation, management and practice suggestions, education and training to integrate TB/HIV services and increase research to identify gaps in clinical management and to improve integration of services.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Met inagneming van die lang duur van die standaard behandeling vir Mycobacterium tuberkulose (TB), hoë voorkoms van MIV-infeksie en die groeiende voorkoms van dwelmweerstandige TB, is daar ’n dringende behoefte aan verbeterde behandelingbenaderings vir TB en MIV. Daar is egter ’n gebrek aan inligting oor die las geplaas op die Departement van Gesondheid (DvG) se stelsels deur die huidige behandeling van pasiënte op antiretrovirale terapie (ART) wat gediagnoseer is met TB en deur hul kliniese bestuur. Die doel van die studie was om vas te stel watter persentasie van pasiënte wat op ART gevestig is, wel met TB gediagnoseer is, en wat hul kliniese en behandeling-uitkomste was in verskillende openbare-sektorinstellings in die eThekwini-streek, KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). Goedkeuring vir die studie is verkry van die Menslike Navorsingskomitee van die Universiteit van Stellenbosch en van die Biomediese Navorsingskomitee, KZN. Die studie het gebruik gemaak van ’n retrospektiewe, kwantitatiewe ‘cohort’-tegniek by beide TB en ARB-klinieke op drie plekke in die eThekwini-streek, KZN. Hierdie terreine was DvG-klinieke en is gekies omdat hulle almal oor ’n TB-kliniek en 'n DvGgeregistreerde ART-kliniek beskik. Die studie het gefokus op ’n tydperk van een jaar voor ’n pasiënt wat op ART is, TB ontwikkel het. Die studiepopulasie bestaan uit alle TBpasiënte wat die geselekteerde DvG-klinieke bygewoon het. ’n Data-insamelinginstrument is ontwikkel en getoets. ’n Klein voorbeeld van die pasiëntlêers (n = 15, 2% van die studie bevolking verteenwoordig) is ewekansig gekies: vyf uit elke plek, en die data is vervat in ’n elektroniese databasis (EpiData Version 3,3). ’n Totaal van 1824 lêers (579 in die TB-klinieke en 1245 lêers in die ART-klinieke) is ondersoek. Die data is ontleed deur gebruik te maak van Stata (weergawe 11,0) met die hulp van ’n statistikus. Die bevindinge toon dat van die studiemonster in die TB-klinieke (N = 579), 78% (454/579) met TB gediagnoseer is. Van die nuwe TB-gevalle, het 90% (409/454) pulmonêre TB gehad en was 71% (413/579) MIV-positief. Byna 50% (68/137) van die pasiënte het ART begin vóór hulle TB-diagnose en -behandeling, en 14% (19/137) ART ná TB. Van dié wat ART voor TB-diagnose en -behandeling begin het, het 29% (20/68) meer as drie maande voor die opdoen van TB met ART begin. Die bevindinge van die ART-klinieke toon dat van die lêers (N = 1245) wat bestudeer is, 40% (501/1245) TB het, en hiervan het 8% (42/501) TB na drie of meer maande van ART ontwikkel. Ontbrekende data in die pasiënt se mediese lêers was ’n groot uitdaging. Die gebrek aan aangetekende data oor ART in die TB-klinieke en oor TB in die ART-klinieke dui op suboptimale kliniese bestuur en swak integrasie van MIV- en TB-dienste. Dit was dus nie moontlik om ’n gesamentlike MIV-TB uitkomsmaatreël af te lei nie. Aanbevelings om die integrasie van TB- en MIV-dienste te bevorder en te implementer, het beleidveranderinge en -implementering ingesluit, asook bestuur- en praktykvoorstelle, onderwys en opleiding om TB-/MIV-dienste by DvG-vlak te integreer en meer navorsing om gapings in die kliniese bestuur te identifiseer en die integrasie van dienste te verbeter.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/80334
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