Assessing the compatibility and aroma production of NT 202 Co-Inoculant with different wine yeasts and additives

Scholtz, Marene (2013-03)

Thesis (MScAgric)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The influence of malolactic fermentation (MLF) in most red and some white wines is one of many factors that determine or influence wine quality, because it affects the flavour and sensory profile of wine. This process is a decarboxylation process conducted by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) such as Oenococcus, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Leuconostoc. Mostly Oenococcus oeni, but recently also Lactobacillus plantarum is used in commercial starter cultures and also the first mixed MLF starter culture (NT 202 Co-Inoculant) was commercialized in 2011. The reason for the predominant use of O. oeni and recently L. plantarum is due to their tolerance to the harsh wine environment. Malolactic fermentation leads to a decrease in acidity and an increase in pH that leaves the wine with a softer mouthfeel. Another reason to conduct MLF is the improvement of microbial stability by the removal of malic acid as carbon source. Research focus has recently shifted to the ability of LAB and MLF as well as the interaction of LAB with yeast to alter the wine aroma profile via the modification and/or production of certain aroma compounds. The main goal of this study was to assess the impact of yeast and nutrient addition on the ability of the NT 202 Co-Inoculant to conduct MLF during co-inoculation and to evaluate the aroma compound production in the final wine. The first aim was to evaluate the impact of different red and white wine yeast strains on the ability of the NT 202 Co-Inoculant to conduct MLF during co-inoculation in Chardonnay, Merlot and Shiraz. Malolactic fermentation was unsuccessful in the Chardonnay due to a low pH, but successful in Merlot and Shiraz. Based on the malic acid degradation ability of the NT 202 Co- Inoculant, the yeasts were grouped into three categories: inhibitory, neutral or stimulatory towards MLF. Co-inoculated MLF showed a clear decrease in total fermentation time while yeast strains such as WE 372 and Exotics showed positive compatibility with the NT 202 Co- Inoculant. The impact of the yeast-bacterial combinations on the aroma compound production in the final wine was evaluated. Co-inoculated MLF showed positive aroma changes in the red wines with a general increase in total esters (associated with fruity characters in wine) especially ethyl lactate and diethyl succinate that also contribute to the mouthfeel of the wine. Production of esters, volatile fatty acids and higher alcohols seemed to depend on the yeastand LAB strain used. The NT 202 Co-Inoculant contributed to the monoterpenes produced and MLF led to increased concentrations of diacetyl and acetoin, which are associated with buttery characters in wine. The second aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of wine additives (used during coinoculation) such as yeast- and bacterial nutrients, clarifying- and detoxifying agents on the ability of the NT 202 Co-Inoculant to conduct MLF and to assess their impact on the aroma compound production in the final wine. No negative or positive impact on the malic acid degradation of the NT 202 Co-Inoculant or the resulting aroma compound production was observed for the different wine additives used in this study. The results generated from this study showed that the selection of yeast strains is important as it will influence both the fermentation duration and final wine aroma.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die invloed van appelmelksuurgisting (AMG) in die meeste rooi- en witwyne is een van baie faktore wat wynkwaliteit beïnvloed, omrede dit die geur en sensoriese profiel van wyn beïnvloed. Hierdie proses is 'n dekarboksileringsaksie wat deur melksuurbakterieë (MSB), soos Oenococcus, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus en Leuconostoc, uitgevoer word. Die mees algemene bakterieë wat gebruik word, is Oenococcus oeni, maar onlangs het Lactobacillus plantarum ook na vore getree in die gebruik van kommersiële aanvangskulture. Die eerste gemengde AMGaanvangskultuur (NT 202 Co-Inoculant) is in 2011 gekommersialiseer. Die rede vir die oorheersende gebruik van O. oeni en L. plantarum word toegeskryf aan hul gehardhiedsgraad in ‘n uitdagende wynomgewing. Appelmelksuurgisting lei tot 'n afname in die suurheidsgraad en 'n toename in die pH van die wyn, wat 'n sagter mondgevoel tot gevolg het. Nog 'n rede waarom AMG deurgevoer word, is om die mikrobiese stabiliteit van die wyn te verbeter deur die verwydering van appelsuur as koolstofbron. Die navorsingsfokus het onlangs verskuif na die vermoë van MSB en AMG, sowel as die interaksie van MSB met die gis, om die wynaromaprofiel te verander deur middel van die verandering en/of produksie van sekere aromaverbindings. Die hoofdoel van hierdie studie was om die impak van die gis en voedingstof te evalueer ten opsigte van die vermoë van die NT 202 Co-Inoculant om AMG uit te voer tydens koïnokulasie. Die produksie van aromakomponente in die finale wyn is ook geëvalueer. Die eerste doelwit was om die impak van verskillende rooi- en witwyngisrasse te evalueer ten opsigte van die vermoë van die NT 202 Co-Inoculant om AMG uit te voer tydens koïnokulasie in Chardonnay, Merlot en Shiraz. Appelmelksuurgisting was onsuksesvol in die Chardonnay weens 'n lae pH, maar suksesvol in Merlot en Shiraz. In terme van die appelsuurafbraakvermoë van die NT 202 Co-Inoculant, is die giste in drie kategorieë gegroepeer: inhiberend, neutraal of stimulerend teenoor AMG. Ge-koïnokuleerde AMG het 'n duidelike afname in die totale fermentasietyd getoon, terwyl gisrasse, soos WE 372 en Exotics, ‘n positiewe verenigbaarheid met die NT 202 Co-Inoculant getoon het. Die impak van die gisbakteriële kombinasies op die aromakomponentproduksie in die finale wyn is geëvalueer. Gekoïnokuleerde AMG het positiewe aromaveranderinge in die rooiwyne getoon met 'n algemene toename in die totale esters (wat geassosieer word met vrugtige karakters in wyn), veral etiellaktaat en dietielsuksinaat, wat ook bydra tot die mondgevoel van die wyn. Dit het voorgekom dat produksie van esters, vlugtige vetsure en hoër alkohole moontlik afhanklik kan wees van die gis- en bakteriële ras gebruik. Die NT 202 Co-Inoculant het bygedra tot die monoterpene wat geproduseer is en AMG het gelei tot verhoogde konsentrasies van diasetiel en asetoïen, wat geassosieer word met botteragtige karakters in wyn. Die tweede doelwit van hierdie studie was om die impak van wyntoevoegingsmiddels (wat tydens koïnokulasie gebruik word) bv. gis- en bakteriese voedingstowwe, verhelderingsagente, asook detoksifiserende agente, te evalueer ten opsigte van die vermoë van die NT 202 Co- Inoculant om AMG uit te voer en om hul impak op die produksie van die aromakomponente van die finale wyn te ontleed. Geen negatiewe of positiewe effekte is waargeneem vir die verskillende wyntoevoegingsmiddels, wat in hierdie studie gebruik is, in terme van die appelsuurafbraak van die NT 202 Co-Inoculant of die gevolglike produksie van aromakomponente nie. Hierdie studie se resultate toon dat die keuse van die gisras belangrik is, omdat dit die fermentasietydperk, asook die finale wynaroma, beïnvloed.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/80309
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