Error management in nursing amongst registered nurses working in a tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia

Haines, Fiona Imelda (2013-03)

Thesis (MCurr)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Healthcare organizations have implemented numerous safety initiatives to address errors due to the impact on the patient, families, healthcare provider and the organization as highlighted in the Institute of Medicine report. However, error identification, reporting and management remain a challenge. Nurses have been identified as the healthcare provider with the greatest potential for errors. Supportive work environments are needed to provide optimal care to the nurse who makes an error; which may be minor to severe repercussions. The patient is identified as the first victim and the nurse who makes the error as the second victim. How nurse errors are reported, managed and disclosed is dependent on the response of leaders and peers which may be in a shame and blame or just culture approach. The aim of the study was to assess error management in nursing amongst registered nurses working in a tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia. The objectives were to identify the occurrence of nursing related errors, determine the current process of reporting nursing errors, describe the management of nursing errors and explore the factors impacting on the management of nursing errors. The research methodology for this study was a descriptive, quantitative approach which is applicable when exploring the unknown. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Board, University of Stellenbosch and the Institutional Review Board, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (General Organization) -Jeddah (KFSH&RC-J). The population was registered nurses working in KFSH&RC-J and assigned to the job descriptions of Staff Nurse 1&2, Clinical Nurse Coordinators and Assistant/Head nurses. Sample was selected using proportional allocation for nationality and simple random selection for nursing specialty; 215 RNs from these three groups. Data was collected using a questionnaire developed by the researcher and analysis completed using SPSS and regression analysis to identify factors which influences the reporting and management of errors. Data was presented in the form of frequency tables and graphs using the EXCEL program to analyze the data. The main findings of the study; there was significant difference in nurse leaders and professional nurses ability to identify nursing errors; questioning of the practice of peers, views of a non-punitive environment and the ability to differentiate between error and negligence. The nurse executive was positively associated with the average positive responses received. RNs of Middle Eastern nationality and the Adult nursing division were found to be slightly more negative in their perceptions about error reporting and management than other respondents. Improvements are needed in the processes of error reporting and management which include education; leadership development, underreporting of errors, feedback and communication, nurse manager support and disclosure of errors. Recommendations are the implementation of the Just Culture principles within the organization and leadership development to address error reporting and management. The need to develop a national database for error reporting in Saudi Arabia is recommended. Nursing errors occurred in one tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia and an on-line system is available to report errors. However, nurses do not report errors as they fear being blamed and shamed. The process of error management within the organization has not been clearly defined.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Gesondheidsorganisasies het talle veiligheids inisiatiewe geïmplementeer om foute aan te spreek weens die invloed wat dit het op die pasiënt, families, die gesondheidsverskaffer en die organisasie soos uitgelig in die Mediese Verslag van die Instituut. Nietemin, die identifisering van foute, verslaggewing en bestuur bly ’n uitdaging. Verpleegsters is geïdentifiseer as die gesondheidsverskaffers wat oor die grootste potensiaal beskik om foute te begaan. Ondersteunende werkomgewings word benodig om optimale sorg aan die verpleegster te verskaf wat ’n fout van ’n mindere aard tot die met ernstige gevolge begaan. Die pasiënt word geïdentifiseer as die eerste slagoffer en die verpleegster wat die fout begaan as die tweede slagoffer. Die manier hoedat verpleegfoute gerapporteer, bestuur en openbaar gemaak word, is afhanklik van die reaksies van leiers en portuurgroepe wat ’n skaamte- en blameerbenadering of “just culture”-benadering kan wees. Die doel van die studie was om die hantering van verpleegfoute tussen geregistreerde vepleegkundiges wat in n tersiêre hospital in Saudi werk te ondersoek. Die doelwitte is om die voorkoms van verpleegverwante foute te identifiseer, die huidige proses van verslaggewing van verpleegfoute te bepaal, die bestuur van verpleegfoute te beskryf en die faktore te ondersoek wat ’n impak het op die bestuur van verpleegfoute. Die navorsingsmetodologie vir hierdie studie is ’n beskrywende, kwantitatiewe benadering wat van toepassing is wanneer die onbekende ondersoek word. Etiese goedkeuring is verkry van die Etiese Raad aan die Universiteit Stellenbosch en die Institusionele Beoordelingsraad, King Faisal Specialist Hospitaal en Navorsingssentrum (Algemene Organisasie) – Jeddah (KFSH & RC-J). Die teikengroep is geregistreerde verpleegsters wat werk in KFSH & RC-J aan wie die posbeskrywing van stafverpleegster 1 & 2 toegeken is, Kliniese Verpleegkoördineerders en Assistent/Hoofverpleegsters. Die steekproef is geselekteer deur gebruik te maak van proporsionele toekenning vir nasionaliteit en ’n eenvoudige ewekansige steekproef vir verpleegspesialiteit; 215 geregistreerde verpleegsters van hierdie drie groepe. Data is gekollekteer deur gebruik te maak van ’n vraelys wat deur die navorser ontwikkel is en die analise is voltooi deur gebruik te maak van SPSS en regressie-analise om faktore te identifiseer wat verslaggewing en bestuur van foute beïnvloed. Data is aangebied in die vorm van frekwensie-tabelle en grafieke deur gebruik te maak van die EXCEL-program om die data te analiseer. Die vernaamste bevindinge van die studie is dat daar beduidende verskille tussen verpleegleiers en professionele verpleegsters se vermoë is om verpleegfoute te identifiseer; bevraagtekening van die praktyke van portuurgroepe; beskouinge van nie-strafgerigte omgewing en die vermoë om te onderskei tussen foute en nalatigheid. Die verpleegeksekuteur is positief geassosieer met die gemiddelde positiewe response wat ontvang is. Geregistreerde verpleegsters van Midde-Oostelike nasionaliteit en die Volwasse Verpleegafdeling is gevind om effens meer negatief te wees in hulle persepsies van fouteverslaggewing en bestuur, as ander respondente. Verbeterings is nodig in die prosesse van verslaggewing van foute en bestuur daarvan wat opvoeding daarvan insluit; leierskapontwikkeling, onderverslaggewing van foute, terugvoer en kommunikasie, ondersteuning van verpleegbestuur en bekendmaking van foute. Aanbevelings is die implementering van die “Just”-kultuur beginsels binne die organisasie en leierskap ontwikkeling om die verslag van foute en bestuur aan te spreek. Die behoefte om ’n nasionale databasis te ontwikkel vir die verslag van foute in Saoedi-Arabië word aanbeveel. Verpleegfoute het in een tersiêre hospitaal in Saoedi-Arabië plaasgevind en ’n aanlyn sisteem is beskikbaar gestel om foute te rapporteer. Nietemin, verpleegsters rapporteer nie foute nie, want hulle vrees om geblameer te word en beskaamd te staan. Hierdie proses van foutebestuur binne die organisasie is nog nie duidelik gedefinieer nie.

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