Isolation and identification of the microbial consortium present in fermented milks from Sub-Saharan Africa

Schutte, Lionie Marie (2013-03)

Thesis (MSc Food Sc)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A wide variety of traditionally and commercially fermented milks are commonly consumed in various countries of Sub-Saharan Africa. Commercially fermented milk is produced on an industrial scale according to well-managed, standardised production processes and starters are used to initiate fermentation. Traditionally fermented milk is prepared domestically and fermentation occurs spontaneously at ambient temperatures. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are responsible for milk fermentation during which they convert the milk carbohydrates to lactic acid, carbon dioxide, alcohol and other organic metabolites. Acetic acid bacteria (AAB), yeasts and mycelial fungi have also been isolated from fermented milks. In this study the microbial consortium present in three traditionally fermented milks, namely omashikwa from Namibia, masse from Mozambique and chekapmkaika from Uganda and two commercially fermented milks, namely chambiko from Malawi and omaere from Namibia, were isolated and enumerated on six different selective media that included MSR + C (specific for lactobacilli), KCA + TTC (specific for lactococci), KCA + V (specific for leuconostocs), MRS + E (specific for AAB), MEA (specific for mycelial fungi) and YPD (specific for yeasts). No significant differences were found between the enumeration values obtained for the three chambiko samples, as well as for enumeration values obtained for the two omaere samples on each of the selective media, indicating low sample variance. Significant differences between enumeration values obtained for the three omashikwa samples were found on all six selective media. Significant differences between enumeration values of the three masse samples and both the chekapmkaika samples were also observed on the selective media. In addition to this, significant differences were observed between average enumeration values obtained for each media between the masse and chekapmkaika, the chambiko and omaere, as well as when the traditional and commercial milks were compared. According to the average enumeration values obtained on each media selective for LAB, the highest bacterial counts were detected on KCA + TTC medium for omaere (2.3 x 106 cfu.ml-1), KCA + V for chambiko (1.8 x 105 cfu.ml-1), KCA + TTC for omashikwa and MRS + C for masse and chekapmkaika (6.2 x 106 and 2.0 x 103 cfu.ml-1, respectively). After isolation and enumeration of the microbes present in each milk, bacterial isolates on the media selective for LAB and AAB were obtained according to the Harrison Disk method. These isolates were identified by amplifying a 1.5 kilobase (kb) part of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by DNA sequencing. The isolates were identified by comparing the sequences obtained to sequences listed in the NCBI database using the BLAST algorithm and searching for the closest relative. The main LAB group present in the omaere was lactococci (94%), in chambiko and chekapmkaika it was lactobacilli (30% and 45%, respectively), in omashikwa it was enterococci (43%) and in masse it was leuconostocs (68%). The same microbial species were present on a number of the selective media used in this study. Lactococcus spp., Enterococcus spp. and Lactobacillus spp. were isolated from MRS + C, KCA + TTC, KCA + V and MRS + E and Leuconostoc spp. were isolated from MRS + C, MRS + E and KCA + V. Hygienic standards during traditional milk fermentation is often poor and, therefore, microbial contaminants were isolated from the traditional milk and these included Acinetobacter johnsonii and Klebsiella pneumoniae from KCA + V, Mesorhizobium loti, Acinetobacter radioresistens, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp., Kluyvera georgiana, Enterobacter spp. and Klebsiella oxytoca from KCA + TTC, Staphylococcus spp. from MRS + C and Bacillus spp. from MRS + E. Since the media used for the isolation of the LAB and AAB in this study were not selective further identification of the enumerated microbes is of importance for the identification of the microbial groups present in each fermented milk. The data obtained in this study clearly shows that fermented milks from Sub-Saharan Africa vary significantly from each other in terms of microbial numbers, microbial diversity and the dominant microbial groups present. The microbial diversity of the traditionally fermented milks was more diverse than the microbial diversity of the commercially fermented milks. LAB strains isolated from these traditionally fermented milks can be used to develop novel starters and as a result new commercially fermented dairy products with unique aromas, tastes and characteristics can be produced.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: 'n Wye verskeidenheid tradisioneel en kommersieel gefermenteerde melk produkte word algeneem verbruik in verskeie lande van Sub-Sahara Afrika. Kommersieel gefermenteerde melk word geproduseer op groot skaal, deur deeglik bestuurde gestandardiseerde produksieprosesse en 'n beginkultuur word gebruik om fermentasie te inisieer. Tradisioneel gefermenteerde melk word tuis gemaak en fermentasie gebeur spontaan by kamertemperatuur. Melksuurbakterieë (MSB) is verantwoordelik vir melkfermentasie waartydens die bakterieë koolhidrate omskakel na melksuur, koolstofdioksied, alkohol en ander organiese sure. Asetaatsuurbakterieë (ASB), giste en miseliale fungi is ook al van gefermenteerde melk geïsoleer. In hierdie studie is die mikrobiese konsortium teenwoordig in drie soorte tradisioneel gefermenteerde melk, naamlik omashikwa van Namibië, masse van Mosambiek en chekapmkaika van Uganda en twee soorte kommersieel gefermenteerde melk, naamlik chambiko van Malawi en omaere van Namibië, geïsoleer en getel op ses verskillende selektiewe groeimedia insluitend MRS + C (spesifiek vir lactobacilli), KCA + TTC (spesifiek vir lactococci), KCA + V (spesifiek vir leuconostocs), MRS + E (spesifiek vir ASB), MEA (spesifiek vir miseliale fungi) en YPD (spesifiek vir giste). Geen betekenisvolle verskille is gevind tussen die mikrobiese tellings verkry vir die drie chambiko monsters nie, sowel as tussen die mikrobiese tellings verkry vir die twee omaere monsters, op elk van die selektiewe groeimedia, wat dui op lae monster variansie. Betekenisvolle verskille is gevind tussen die mikrobiese tellings verkry vir die drie omashikwa monsters op al ses selektiewe groeimedia. Betekenisvolle verskille is ook waargeneem tussen die mikrobiese tellings van die drie masse monsters en beide die chekapmkaika monsters op die selektiewe groeimedia. Daarbenewens is betekenisvolle verskille waargeneem tussen gemiddelde mikrobiese tellings verkry vir elke groeimedium tussen die masse en chekapmkaika, die chambiko en omaere asook toe die tradisionele en kommersiële melk produkte met mekaar vergelyk is. Volgens die gemiddelde mikrobiese tellings verkry op elk van die groeimedia selektief vir MSB, is die hoogste mikrobiese telling waargeneem op KCA + TTC medium vir omaere (2.3 x 106 kve.ml-1), KCA + V vir chambiko (1.8 x 105 kve.ml-1), KCA + TTC vir omashikwa en MRS + C vir masse en chekapmkaika (6.2 x 106 en 2.0 x 103 kve.ml-1, respektiewelik). Na die isolasie en tel van die mikrobes teenwoordig in elke melk is bakteriese isolate op die media selektief vir MSB en ASB verkry volgends die Harrison Disk metode. Hierdie isolate is geïdentifiseer deur amplifikasie van „n 1.5 kilobasis (kb) gedeelte van die 16S ribosomale RNS (rRNS) geen deur gebruik te maak van die polimerase kettingreaksie gevolg deur DNS klonering. Die isolate is geïdentifiseer deur die gekloneerde insetsels se volgordes te vergelyk met volgordes beskikbaar op die NCBI webwerf deur van die BLAST algoritme gebruik te maak en die naas verwante insetsel op te spoor. Die hoof MSB groep teenwoordig in die omaere was lactococci (94%), in chambiko en chekapmkaika was dit lactobacilli (30% en 45%, respektiewelik), in die omashikwa was dit enterococci (43%) en in die masse was dit leuconostocs (68%). Dieselfde mikrobiese spesies was teenwoordig op verskeie van die selektiewe groeimedia gebruik in hierdie studie. Lactococcus spp., Enterococcus spp. en Lactobacillus spp. is geïsoleer van MRS + C, KCA + TTC, KCA + V en MRS + E en Leuconostoc spp. is geïsoleer van MRS + C, MRS + E en KCA + V. Higiëniese standaarde tydens tradisionele melkfermentasie is dikwels swak en dus is mikrobiese kontaminante geïsoleer van die tradisionele melk produkte insluitend Acinetobacter johnsonii en Klebsiella pneumoniae van KCA + V, Mesorhizobium loti, Acinetobacter radioresistens, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp., Kluyvera georgiana, Enterobacter spp. en Klebsiella oxytoca van KCA + TTC, Staphylococcus spp. van MRS + C en Bacillus spp. van MRS + E. Aangesien die media wat gebruik is vir die isolasie van die MSB en ASB in hierdie studie nie selektief was nie, is verdere identifikasie van die getelde mikrobes belangrik vir die identifikasie van die mikrobiese groepe teenwoordig in elke melk. Die data verkry in hierdie studie dui aan dat gefermenteerde melk produkte van Sub-Sahara Afrika betekenisvol van mekaar verskil in terme van mikrobiese getalle, mikrobiese diversiteit en die dominante mikrobiese groepe teenwoordig. Die mikrobiese diversiteit van die tradisioneel gefermenteerde melk produkte was meer divers as die mikrobiese diversiteit van die kommersieel gefermenteerde melk produkte. MSB spesies geïsoleer van hierdie tradisioneel gefermenteerde melk produkte kan gebruik word om nuwe beginkulture te ontwikkel en gevolglik kan nuwe kommersieel gefermenteerde suiwelprodukte met unieke aromas, smake en eienskappe geproduseer word.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/80020
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