Development and culture : a theological engagement with the endogenous development of the Nsenga in Zambia

Mwanza, Clement (2013-03)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The topic of the research is, Development and Culture: A theological engagement with the Endogenous development of the Nsenga in Zambia. Development takes place in many forms. There is a need for a kind of development that meets the needs and people's aspirations in life. The question of this research is: what could the role of theology and the church be towards an endogenous development process that is culturally orientated to the Nsenga ethnic group of Zambia? The study is based on the working hypothesis that endogenous development provides the platform where the grassroots organisations and people become subjects of their own human development and transformation in life and society. The aim of the study is to investigate, examine and evaluate the place of culture in development, and to propose an endogenous base which is contextual. It also shows how a cultural driven development process stemming from the grassroots can be a better tool for human developments that are sustainable over time. An endogenous approach to development is proposed, an approach based on local strategies, values and innovations that encourages people in a given set-up to use their own resources, knowledge and initiative to develop new and better ways of doing things. A framework was developed for understanding the principles and practices of endogenous development among the Nsenga of Zambia. This study considers culture as an important aspect of development and as a means to understanding and achieving forms of development from which people can draw meaning and fulfillment in life. Models of development that cannot integrate culture are likely not only to fail but also to cause damage to people‟s well-being. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of the study, both theoretical and methodological triangulations were employed. The methods of literature review, critical reflection, logical arguments and analysis were applied. Chapter 1 introduces the study, gives the motivation for studying culture and development and briefly describes the chosen research approach and methods. The focus then moves to the specific research topic, research problem, aim and purpose of the research, hypothesis and the contribution of the research to the Zambian community in the area of development and culture in the field of Theology and Development. Chapter 2 explores an understanding of development and culture through a review and survey of definitions and develops a concept of endogenous development which presupposes a kind of development which is born out of the local people‟s own initiative. The chapter argues that all models of development must be culturally oriented and should reflect perspectives of responses to problems faced by human societies in their contexts. Chapter 3 surveys the relationships between culture and development. The chapter claims that in the past theories of development disregarded cultural aspect in development. It is suggested that the culture and the people concerned in any developmental process must play a central role. Chapter 4 discusses the relationship between theology and development under five sub-themes namely (1) theology and development, (2) church and development, (3) the role of the church in development, (4) the church as a channel of development and, (5) people and development. Chapter 5 focuses on the ethnography and case study of the Nsenga in the three selected villages in Petauke district in the eastern province of Zambia. This chapter analyses the social economic status of people in Nsenga area and the practical implementation of endogenous development projects. Chapter 6 critically analyses the Nsenga‟s practical engagement with endogenous development as described in the theoretical and theological framework. Chapter 7 provides the conclusion and recommendations regarding the practice of endogenous development within the context of the Nsenga of Zambia.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die onderwerp van hierdie navorsing is, Development and Culture: A theological engagement with the Endogenous development of the Nsenga in Zambia. Ontwikkeling vind op verskillende maniere plaas. Daar is 'n behoefte aan 'n bepaalde soort ontwikkeling wat in die hedendaagse behoeftes en lewens verwagtinge van plaaslike arm gemeenskappe sal voorsien. Die navorsingvraag van hierdie navorsing is, Wat kan die rol van teologie en die kerk wees binne 'n proses van endogene ontwikkeling wat kultureel georienteer is binne die Nsenga etniese groep van Zambia? Hierdie navorsing is gebaseer op die werkende hipotese dat endogene ontwikkeling die onderbou voorsien waarop plaaslike organisasies en mense die onderwerpe word van hul eie menslike ontwikkeling en transformasie binne die lewe en samelewing - vanuit 'n teologiese raamwerk en met die aktiewe betrokkenheid van die kerk. Die doel van die studie is om die rol van kultuur in ontwikkeling te ondersoek en evalueer en ʼn endogene basis te onwikkel wat kontekstueel van aard is. Dit streef ook om aan te dui hoe kultureel gedrewe ontwikkelingsprosesse wat op grondvlak ontstaan, ʼn beter instrument kan wees vir menslike ontwikkeling wat langdurig volhoubaar is. ʼn Endogene benadering tot ontwikkeling gebaseer op plaaslike strategieë, waardes en innoverings word voorgestel en mense word aangemoedig om hul eie hulpbronne, kennis en inisiatief te gebruik om nuwe en beter maniere van doen te ontwikkel. Die studie bied ook ʼn raamwerk vir die verstaan van die beginsels en gebruike van endogene ontwikkeling onder die Nsenga van Zambië. Kultuur word beskou as ʼn belangrike aspek van ontwikkeling en as ʼn middel om vorms van ontwikkeling wat lei tot ʼn betekenisvolle, vervulde bestaan, te verstaan en bereik. Ontwikkelingsmodelle wat nie kultuur kan integreer nie, is geneig om te misluk en selfs mense se wel-wees te beskadig. Vanweë die interdissiplinêre aard van die navorsing, is beide teoretiese en metodologiese triangulasies gebruik. Literatuur oorsig, kritiese nadenke, logiese argumente en analise is toegepas. Hoofstuk 1 as inleiding bied die motivering vir die bestudering van kultuur en ontwikkeling en beskryf kortliks die navorsingsbenadering en –metodes. Die fokus skuif dan na die spesifieke navorsingsonderwerp, navorsingsvraagstuk, doel van die navorsing, hipotese en die bydrae van die navorsing tot die Zambiese gemeenskap op die gebied van ontwikkeling en kultuur in die velde van Teologie en Ontwikkeling. Hoofstuk 2 ondersoek ʼn verstaan van ontwikkeling en kultuur deur ʼn oorsig van definisies en ontwikkel ʼn konsep van endogene ontwikkeling wat die soort ontwikkeling gebore uit plaaslike mense se eie inisiatiewe, voorveronderstel. Die hoofstuk betoog dat alle modelle van ontwikkeling behoort kultureel van aard te wees en behoort perspektiewe van gemeenskappe se response op probleme in hul konteks te weerspieël. Hoofstuk 3 ondersoek die verhoudings tussen kultuur en ontwikkeling. Daar word beweer dat ontwikkelingsteorieë die kulturele aspek van ontwikkeling verontagsaam het. Die hoofstuk stel voor dat die betrokke mense en hul kultuur in enige ontwikkelingsproses ʼn sentrale rol moet speel. Hoofstuk 4 bespreek die verhouding tussen teologie en ontwikkeling in terme van (1) teologie en ontwikkeling, (2) kerk en ontwikkeling, (3) die rol van die kerk in ontwikkeling, (4) die kerk as ontwikkelingskanaal en, (5) mense en ontwikkeling. Hoofstuk 5 fokus op die etnografie en die gevallestudie van die Nsenga-mense in drie dorpies in Petauke-distrik in die Oostelike provinsie van Zambië. Die sosio-ekonomiese status van mense in die Nsenga-area en die praktiese implementasie van endogene ontwikkelingsprojekte word ondersoek. Hoofstuk 6 is ʼn kritiese analise van die Nsenga se praktiese betrokkenheid by endogene ontwikkeling soos dit in die teoretiese en teologiese raamwerk beskryf is. Hoof 7 sluit in die slotsom en aanbevelings vir die beoefening van endogene ontwikkeling binne die konteks van die Nsenga van Zambië.

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