To determine the relationship between dietary intake, body composition and incidence of upper respiratory tract infections in triathletes during training and competition for the Ironman

Main, Carey Anne (2013-03)

Thesis (MNutr)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Background: The Ironman® triathlon is an ultra-endurance event. It has previously been shown that heavy training schedules and racing ultra-endurance events can lead to immune impairment. Evidence supporting the potential role of dietary intake and body composition on immune impairment or upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) is currently lacking. Aim: To investigate the relationship between dietary intake, body composition and the incidence of URTI in triathletes residing in Port Elizabeth (PE), during training and competition for the Ironman® 2011 triathlon. Method: An observational longitudinal descriptive study with an analytical component was conducted. The study population included triathletes living in PE, who completed an Ironman® distance event one year prior to, and who were training for the April 2011 Ironman®. Habitual dietary intake was assessed with a quantitative food frequency questionnaire; and race dietary strategies with a three day food record. Body composition was determined with anthropometry and the incidence of URTI was assessed with the WURSS-44. A general health screen (SF-36) was also administered. Results: Habitual dietary intake during the three months pre- and post-Ironman® 2011 triathlon was adequate for all nutrients except for carbohydrate intake in female and male participants (pre-Ironman® of 4.0 (1.7) g/kg body weight (BW)/day and 5.4 (1.8) g/kg BW/day; and post-Ironman® 3.0 (1.0) g/kg BW/day and 4.7 (1.5) g/kg BW/day respectively). Carbohydrate-loading strategies were below recommendations with intakes of 6.0 (2.9) and 5.1 (2.5) g/kg BW/day for female and male participants respectively. Race day nutrition strategies were below recommendations for carbohydrate intake. Post-race dietary intake was below recommendations for carbohydrate in the female participants (0.9 (0.5) g/kg BW). Body mass index was 26.6 (3.4) kg/m2 and 26.1 kg/m2 (1.40) for female and male study participants respectively. Body fat percentage was at the upper end for endurance athletes (29.3 (9.4) % and 13.7 (5.1) % for females and males respectively). In this study 25 % of the triathletes (N=20) developed an episode of URTI during the 3 months post-Ironman®. Dietary intake parameters measured three months pre-Ironman® that had a significant influence on URTI were: potassium (p=0.04) and thiamine (p=0.02) and dietary intake parameters measured 3 months post-Ironman® that had a significant influence on URTI were: total protein (p=0.04); isoleucine (p=0.03); leucine (p=0.03); phenylalanine (p=0.03); valine (p=0.02); thiamine (p=0.01); and Beta-tocopherol (p=0.03). Dietary intake parameters measured during the race that had a significant influence on URTI were: selenium (p=0.04); folate (p=0.04) and proline (p=0.02). Body composition did not have a significant influence on URTI. Conclusion: Habitual dietary intake three months pre- and post-Ironman® as well as pre- and post Ironman race strategies were low for carbohydrate. Body composition indicated that athletes were at the upper end associated with endurance sport. There was a relationship found between an episode of URTI and dietary intake.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Agtergrond: Die Ironman® driekamp is 'n ultra-uithouvermoë kompetisie. Daar is voorheen bewys dat swaar oefening skedules en ultra-uithouvermoë kompetisies kan lei tot ‘n immuungebrek. Daar is tans ‘n tekort aan wetenskaplike bewyse wat die potensiële rol van dieetinname en liggaamsamestelling op immuungebrek of boonste lugweginfeksies ondersoek. Doel: Die doel van die studie was om ondersoek in te stel oor die verhouding tussen dieetinname, liggaamsamestelling en die insidensie van boonste lugweg infeksies in driekamp atlete woonagtig in Port Elizabeth (PE), tydens oefening en deelname aan die Ironman® 2011 driekamp. Metodes: 'n Waargenome, longitudinale beskrywende studie is gedoen met 'n analitiese komponent. Die studiepopulasie het bestaan uit driekampatlete woonagtig in PE, wat 'n Ironman® afstand kompetisie voltooi het een jaar voor en wat oefen vir die April 2011 Ironman® kompetisie. Gewoontelike dieetinname is bepaal met 'n kwantitatiewe voedselfrekwensie vraelys, en dieet strategieë rondom die byeenkoms met 'n drie dag voedselrekord. Liggaamsamestelling is bepaal met antropometrie en die insidensie van boonste lugweg infeksies is bepaal met die WURSS-44. 'n algemene gesondheid vraelys (SF- 36) is ook ingevul. Resultate: Die gewoontelike dieetinname gedurende die drie maande voor- en na-Ironman® 2011 was voldoende vir alle voedingstowwe, behalwe vir koolhidraat-inname in die vroulike en manlike deelnemers (voor Ironman® 4.0 (1.7) g / kg liggaamsmassa (LM) / dag en 5.4 (1.8) g / kg LM / dag, en na Ironman® 3.0 (1.0) g / kg LM / dag en 4.7 (1.5) g / kg LM / dag onderskeidelik). Koolhidraatlading strategieë was ontoereikend met innames van 6.0 (2.9) en 5.1 (2.5) g / kg BW / dag vir vroulike en manlike deelnemers onderskeidelik. Die inname op die dag van die byeenkoms was onvoldoende vir koolhidraat. Die dieetinname na die byeenkoms was onvoldoende vir koolhidraat inname in die vroulike deelnemers (0.9 (0.5) g / kg LM). Die liggaamsmassa-indeks was 26.6 (3.4) kg/m2 en 26.1 (1.4) kg/m2 vir vroulike en manlike deelnemers onderskeidelik. Persentasie liggaamsvet was aan die boonste grens geassosieer met uithouvermoë oefening atlete 29.3 (9.4) % en 13.7 (5.1) % vir vrouens en mans onderskeidelik. Die insidense van boonste lugweg infeksies was 25% (N=20) gedurende die drie maande na Ironman®. Dieetinname paramters wat gemeet was drie maande voor Ironman® wat beduidende beïnvloed met boonste lugweginfeksies getoon het, was, kalium (p=0.04) en tiamien (p=0.02) en die dieetinname parameters wat drie maande na Ironman® gemeet is en betekenisvolle beïnvloed getoon het met boonste lugweginfeksies was, totale proteïen (p=0.04); isoleusien (p=0.03), leusien (p=0.03), fenielalanien (p=0.03), valien (p=0.02), tiamien (p=0.01), en B-tocopherol (p=0.03). Die dieetinname parameters wat gemeet was tydens die wedloop wat beduidende beïnvloed met boonste lugweginfeksies getoon het na Ironman® 2011 was, selenium (p=0.04), folaat (p=0.04) en prolien (p=0.02). Die antropometriese parameters gemeet het nie beïnvloed op boonste lugweginfeksies gehad nie. Gevolgtrekking: Die gewoontelike dieetinname drie maande voor- en na Ironman® sowel as voor- en na Ironman® kompetisie strategieë was onvoldoende vir koolhidrate. Liggaamsamestelling het aangedui dat atlete aan die boonste grens geassosieer met uithouvermoë oefening geval het. Daar was beduidende beïnvloed gevind tussen dieetinname en boonste lugweginfeksies.

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